expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
(a) few and (a) little
(a)round and about
(be) used to + noun or... -ing
(Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
-ing form ('gerund')
-ing form after to
-ing form or infinitive?
above and over
across and over
across and through
active verb forms
adjectives ending in -Iy
adjectives without nouns
adverbs of manner
adverbs: position (details)
adverbs: position (general)
after (preposition); afterwards (adverb)
afternoon, evening and night
all (of) with nouns and pronouns
all and every
all and whole
all with verbs
all, everybody and everything
almost and nearly
also, as well and too
although and though
among and between
and after try, wait, go etc
any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
any and no: adverbs
articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
articles: countable and uncountable nouns
articles: special rules and exceptions
articles: talking in general
articles: the difference between a/an and the
as and like
as if and as though
as much/many ... as ...
as well as
as, because and since (reason)
as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
at, in and on (place)
at, in and on (time)
be + infinitive
be with auxiliary do
be: progressive tenses
because and because of
before (preposition) and in front of
begin and start
big, large, great and tall
borrow and lend
both (of) with nouns and pronouns
both with verbs
bring and take
British and American English
broad and wide
but = except
can and could: ability
can and could: forms
can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
can: permission, offers, requests and orders
can: possibility and probability
close and shut
come and go
comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
countable and uncountable nouns
do + -ing
do and make
do: auxiliary verb
during and for
during and in
each and every
each other and one another
ellipsis (leaving words out)
emphatic structures with it and what
every and every one
except and except for
excuse me, pardon and sorry
expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
fairly, quite, rather and pretty
far and a long way
farther and further
fewer and less
for + object + infinitive
for, since, from, ago and before
future: present progressive and going to
future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
future: shall/will (predictions)
future: simple present
gender (masculine and feminine language)
get (+ object) + verb form
get + noun, adjective, adverb particle or preposition
get and go: movement
go ... -ing
go: been and gone
hard and hardly
have (got) to
have (got): possession, relationships etc
have + object + verb form
have: auxiliary verb
hear and listen (to)
here and there
holiday and holidays
how and what... like?
if so and if not
if-sentences with could and might
if: ordinary tenses
if: special tenses
ill and sick
in and into (prepositions)
in spite of
infinitive after who, what, how etc
infinitive of purpose
infinitive without to
infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
instead of... -ing
inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
inversion: whole verb before subject
it: preparatory object
it: preparatory subject
last and the last
long and for a long time
look (at), watch and see
marry and divorce
may and might: forms
may and might: permission
may and might: probability
modal auxiliary verbs
more (of): determiner
most (of): determiner
much (of), many (of): determiners
much, many, a lot etc
must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
names and titles
neither (of): determiner
neither, nor and not... either
next and nearest
next and the next
no and none
no and not
no and not a/not any
no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
noun + noun
one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
one: substitute word
other and others
participles used as adjectives
participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
passive structures: introduction
passive verb forms
past tense with present or future meaning
past time: past perfect simple and progressive
past time: past progressive
past time: present perfect progressive
past time: present perfect simple
past time: simple past
past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
play and game
please and thank you
possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
possessives: my and mine, etc
prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
prepositions after particular words and expressions
prepositions and adverb particles
prepositions at the end of clauses
prepositions before particular words and expressions
prepositions: expressions without prepositions
present tenses: introduction
present tenses: present progressive
present tenses: simple present
progressive tenses with always
punctuation: quotation marks
punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
questions: basic rules
questions: reply questions
questions: word order in spoken questions
relative pronouns: what
relative pronouns: whose
relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
reported speech and direct speech
reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
reported speech: questions
road and street
say and tell
should after why and how
should and would
should, ought and must
should: (If I were you) I should ...
since (conjunction of time): tenses
singular and plural: anybody etc
singular and plural: irregular plurals
singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
small and little
so am I, so do I etc
so and not with hope, believe etc
some and any
some/any and no article
some: special uses
somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
spelling and pronunciation
spelling: -ise and -ize
spelling: capital letters
spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
spelling: doubling final consonants
spelling: final -e
spelling: full stops with abbreviations
spelling: ie and ei
spelling: y and i
still, yet and already
subject and object forms
such and so
tall and high
telling the time
tenses in subordinate clauses
this and that
travel, journey and trip
unless and if not
until and by
until and to
used to + infinitive
verbs with object complements
verbs with two objects
weak and strong forms
when and if
whether and if
which, what and who: question words
who ever, what ever, how ever etc
whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
worth ... -ing
Expecting is a kind of thinking: it is not an emotion. If I expect something, I have good reason to think that it will happen.
We expect to leave here in three years. hope
I'm expecting a phone call from John today.
Hoping is more emotional. If I hope for something, I want it to happen, but I am not sure that it will happen, and I can do nothing about it.
I hope she writes to me soon. look forward
I hope they find that poor woman's child.
I hope we don't have a war.
Looking forward is an emotion about something that is certain to happen. If I look forward to something, I know it will happen, I feel happy about it, and I would like the time to pass quickly so that it will happen soon.
He's looking forward to his birthday. wait
I'm really looking forward to going to Morocco in June.
I look forward to hearing from you.(common formula at the end of a letter)
Waiting happens when something is late, or when you are early for something. I wait for something that will probably happen soon; I am conscious of the time passing (perhaps not quickly enough); I may be angry or impatient.
I hate waiting for buses. want
It's difficult to wait for things when you're three years old.
'What's for supper?' Wait and see. '
Wanting is emotional, like hoping. But if I want something to happen, I may be able to do something about it.
What do you want to do when you leave school? wish
I'm going to start saving money. I want a better car.
Wishing is wanting something that is impossible, or that doesn't seem probable — being sorry that things are not different.
I wish I could fly. Some comparisons
I wish I had more money.
I wish she would stop singing.
Wish + infinitive can also be used like want (but wish is more formal).
I wish to see the manager.
I'm expecting a phone call from Mary. Structures
I've been waiting all day for Mary to phone — what does she think she's doing?
I expect it will stop raining soon. ( = I think it will stop.)
I hope it stops raining soon. ( = it may stop or it may not; I would like it to stop.)
I wish it would stop raining. ( = it doesn't look as if it's going to stop;
I feel sorry about that.)
I hope you have a good time in Ireland.(I can't do anything about it.)
I want you to have a good time while you're staying with us. (I'll do what I can to make things nice for you.)
I expected her at ten, but she was late.
I waited for her until eleven, and then I went home.
[expect + object expect (+ object) + infinitive expect + that- clause expect so]
I'm expecting a phone call.
I expect to see her on Sunday.
I'm expecting him to arrive soon.
I expect (that) he'll be here soon.
'Is Lucy coming?' 'I expect so.'
[hope for + object hope + infinitive hope + that- clause hope so]
I'm hoping fora letter from Eric.
I hope to go to America next month.
I hope that they get here soon.
'Are the shops open tomorrow?' I hope so.'
[look forward to + object look forward to... -ing]
I'm looking forward to the holidays.
I look forward to hearing from you.
wait and.. .
wait for + object
wait + infinitive
wait for + object + infinitive]
'Can I go now?' 'Wait.'
'What's for supper?' 'Wait and see. '
I'm waiting for a phone call.
I'm waiting to hear from John.
I'm waiting for John to phone.
[ want + object want(+ object) + infinitive]
I want a new car.
I want to go home.
I want him to go home.
[wish(+ object) + infinitive wish + clause]
I wish to see the manager. (formal)
I wish him to look at this, (formal)
I wish I had more money.
Swach Bharat Abhiyan
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three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it