-ing form or infinitive?
(a) few and (a) little
(a)round and about
(be) used to + noun or... -ing
(Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
-ing form ('gerund')
-ing form after to
-ing form or infinitive?
above and over
across and over
across and through
active verb forms
adjectives ending in -Iy
adjectives without nouns
adverbs of manner
adverbs: position (details)
adverbs: position (general)
after (preposition); afterwards (adverb)
afternoon, evening and night
all (of) with nouns and pronouns
all and every
all and whole
all with verbs
all, everybody and everything
almost and nearly
also, as well and too
although and though
among and between
and after try, wait, go etc
any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
any and no: adverbs
articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
articles: countable and uncountable nouns
articles: special rules and exceptions
articles: talking in general
articles: the difference between a/an and the
as and like
as if and as though
as much/many ... as ...
as well as
as, because and since (reason)
as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
at, in and on (place)
at, in and on (time)
be + infinitive
be with auxiliary do
be: progressive tenses
because and because of
before (preposition) and in front of
begin and start
big, large, great and tall
borrow and lend
both (of) with nouns and pronouns
both with verbs
bring and take
British and American English
broad and wide
but = except
can and could: ability
can and could: forms
can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
can: permission, offers, requests and orders
can: possibility and probability
close and shut
come and go
comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
countable and uncountable nouns
do + -ing
do and make
do: auxiliary verb
during and for
during and in
each and every
each other and one another
ellipsis (leaving words out)
emphatic structures with it and what
every and every one
except and except for
excuse me, pardon and sorry
expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
fairly, quite, rather and pretty
far and a long way
farther and further
fewer and less
for + object + infinitive
for, since, from, ago and before
future: present progressive and going to
future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
future: shall/will (predictions)
future: simple present
gender (masculine and feminine language)
get (+ object) + verb form
get + noun, adjective, adverb particle or preposition
get and go: movement
go ... -ing
go: been and gone
hard and hardly
have (got) to
have (got): possession, relationships etc
have + object + verb form
have: auxiliary verb
hear and listen (to)
here and there
holiday and holidays
how and what... like?
if so and if not
if-sentences with could and might
if: ordinary tenses
if: special tenses
ill and sick
in and into (prepositions)
in spite of
infinitive after who, what, how etc
infinitive of purpose
infinitive without to
infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
instead of... -ing
inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
inversion: whole verb before subject
it: preparatory object
it: preparatory subject
last and the last
long and for a long time
look (at), watch and see
marry and divorce
may and might: forms
may and might: permission
may and might: probability
modal auxiliary verbs
more (of): determiner
most (of): determiner
much (of), many (of): determiners
much, many, a lot etc
must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
names and titles
neither (of): determiner
neither, nor and not... either
next and nearest
next and the next
no and none
no and not
no and not a/not any
no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
noun + noun
one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
one: substitute word
other and others
participles used as adjectives
participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
passive structures: introduction
passive verb forms
past tense with present or future meaning
past time: past perfect simple and progressive
past time: past progressive
past time: present perfect progressive
past time: present perfect simple
past time: simple past
past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
play and game
please and thank you
possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
possessives: my and mine, etc
prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
prepositions after particular words and expressions
prepositions and adverb particles
prepositions at the end of clauses
prepositions before particular words and expressions
prepositions: expressions without prepositions
present tenses: introduction
present tenses: present progressive
present tenses: simple present
progressive tenses with always
punctuation: quotation marks
punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
questions: basic rules
questions: reply questions
questions: word order in spoken questions
relative pronouns: what
relative pronouns: whose
relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
reported speech and direct speech
reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
reported speech: questions
road and street
say and tell
should after why and how
should and would
should, ought and must
should: (If I were you) I should ...
since (conjunction of time): tenses
singular and plural: anybody etc
singular and plural: irregular plurals
singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
small and little
so am I, so do I etc
so and not with hope, believe etc
some and any
some/any and no article
some: special uses
somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
spelling and pronunciation
spelling: -ise and -ize
spelling: capital letters
spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
spelling: doubling final consonants
spelling: final -e
spelling: full stops with abbreviations
spelling: ie and ei
spelling: y and i
still, yet and already
subject and object forms
such and so
tall and high
telling the time
tenses in subordinate clauses
this and that
travel, journey and trip
unless and if not
until and by
until and to
used to + infinitive
verbs with object complements
verbs with two objects
weak and strong forms
when and if
whether and if
which, what and who: question words
who ever, what ever, how ever etc
whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
worth ... -ing
Some verbs and adjectives can be followed by an infinitive or by an -ing form, often with a difference of meaning. remember and forget
We remember or forget doing things in the past — things that we did. Forget . . . -ing is used especially in the structure I'll never forget . . . -ing.
I still remember buying my first packet of cigarettes. Stop
I ll never forget meeting the Queen.
We remember or forget to do things which we have to do.
Did you remember to buy my cigarettes?
You mustn't forget to go and meet Mr Lewis at the station tomorrow.
If you stop doing something, you don't do it any more.
I really must stop smoking. If you stop to do something, you pause (in the middle of something else) in order to do it.
Every hour I stop work to have a little rest. go on
If you go on doing something, you continue — you do it more.
She went on talking about her illnesses until everybody went to sleep. If you go on to do something, you do it next — you stop one thing and start another.
She stopped talking about her illnesses and went on to tell us about all her other problems. regret
You regret doing something in the past — you are sorry that you did it.
I don't regret telling her what I thought, even if it made her angry. The expression I regret to say/tell you/announce etc means 'I'm sorry that I have to say
British Rail regret to announce that the 13.15 train for Cardiff will leave approximately thirty-seven minutes late. This delay is due to the late running of the train. allow
After allow, we use . . . -ing in active clauses if there is no object. If there is an object, we use an infinitive.
We don't allow smoking in the lecture room. see, watch and hear
We don t allow people to smoke in the lecture room.
If you saw, watched or heard something happening, it was happening: you saw or heard it while it was going on. If you saw, watched or heard something happen, it happened: you saw or heard a complete action. Note the infinitive without to:
(For the difference between it was happening and it happened.)
I looked out of the window and saw Mary crossing the road. try
( = She was in the middle of crossing the road.)
I saw Mary step off the pavement, cross the road and disappear into the post office.
Try . . . -ing = 'make an experiment; do something to see what will happen'.
I tried sending her flowers, giving her presents, writing her letters; but she still wouldn't speak to me. afraid
Try to ... = 'make an effort'. It is used for things that are difficult.
I tried to write a letter, but my hands were too cold to hold a pen.
We use afraid of . . . -ing to talk about accidents.
I don't like to drive fast because I'm afraid of crashing sorry
In other cases, we can use afraid of .. . -ing or afraid to ... with no difference of meaning.
I'm not afraid of telling/to tell her the truth.
We use sorry for . . . -ing or sorry about . . . -ing to talk about past things that we regret.
I'm sorry for/about waking you up. ( = I'm sorry that I woke you up.) We can use a perfect infinitive with the same meaning.
I'm sorry to have woken you up. Sorry + infinitive is used to apologize for something that we are doing or going to do.
Sorry to disturb you — could I speak to you for a moment? certain and sure
I'm sorry to tell you that you failed the exam.
If I say that somebody is certain/sure of doing something, I am talking about his or her feelings — he or she feels sure.
Before the game she felt sure of winning, but after five minutes she realized that it wasn't going to be so easy. If I say that somebody is certain/sure to do something, I am talking about my own feelings — I am sure that he or she will succeed.
'Kroftova's sure to win — the other girl hasn't got a chance.' 'Don't be so sure.' like, love, hate, prefer, begin, start, attempt, intend, continue, can't bear
After these verbs, we can use either the -ing form or the infinitive without much difference of meaning.
I hate working/to work at weekends. In British English, we usually use like . . . -ing to talk about enjoyment, and like to ... to talk about choices and habits. Compare:
She began playing/to play the guitar when she was six.
I intend telling her/to tell her what I think.
I like climbing mountains. I like to start work early in the morning. After the conditionals would like, would prefer, would hate and would love, we use the infinitive.
I'd like to tell you something. Compare:
'Can I give you a lift?' 'No, thanks. I'd prefer to walk.'
I'd love to have a coat like that.
Do you like dancing? ( = Do you enjoy dancing?)
Would you like to dance? (An invitation. = Do you want to dance now?)
Children's Day Celebration
Weird cars in the world
Precautions while using Refrigerators
Wacky Ideas to attract your Partner
Benefits of Lemon
Most Stylish Athletes
What to Eat in Karnataka
A mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, sporebearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name mushroom is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word mushroom is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) or pores on the underside of the cap. These pores or gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. Mushroom describes a variety of gilled fungi, with or without stems, and the term is used even more generally, to describe both the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota and the woody or leathery fruiting bodies of some Basidiomycota, depending upon the context of the word.