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must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't

  • Must and have (got) to are not exactly the same. We usually use must to give or ask for orders the obligation comes from the person who is speaking or listening.
    We use have (got) to to talk about an obligation that comes from 'outside' perhaps because of a law, or a rule, or an agreement, or because some other person has given orders. Compare:
      I must stop smoking. (I want to.)
      I've got to stop smoking. Doctor's orders.
      This is a terrible party. We really must go home.
      This is a lovely party, but we've got to go home because of the babysitter.
      I've got bad toothache. I must make an appointment with the dentist.
      I can't come to work tomorrow morning because I've got to see the dentist. (I have an appointment.)
      Must you wear dirty old jeans all the time? (= Is it personally important for you?)
      Do you have to wear a tie at work? (= Is it a rule?)
  • Mustn't is used to tell people not to do things: it expresses 'negative obligation'.
    Haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't are all used to say that something is unnecessary. They express absence of obligation: no obligation. Compare:
      You mustn't tell George. (= Don't tell George.)
      You don't have to tell Alice. (= You can if you like, butit'snot necessary.)
      You don't have to wear a tie to work, but you mustn't wear jeans.
      (= Wear a tie or not, as you like. But no jeans.)
      Haven't got to, don't have to, needn't and don't need to all mean more or less the same.
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  • Mother Teresa

    Mother Teresa and the Nobel Peace Prize

    Mother Teresa is a household name for her good works, but many people don?t know much about her beyond ?nun who helped the poor.? On the anniversary of her being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, here are 20 facts about Mother Teresa.She was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in 1910 in Albania, to a financially comfortable family ? they lived in one of the two houses they owned. Her father died when she was 8 years old, which ended her family?s financial security. Agnes was fascinated with missionaries from an early age, and she knew by age 12 that she would commit herself to a religious vocation.When she was 18 years old, Agnes left home and joined the Sisters of Loreto in Rathfarnham, Ireland.Although she lived to be 87 years old, she never saw her mother or sister again after the day she left for Ireland.After a year learning English in Ireland, Agnes transferred to the Sisters of Loreto convent in Darjeeling, India.

    She took her vows as a nun in 1931, and that?s when she chose the name Teresa ? to honor Saints Therese of Lisieux and Teresa of Avila. Therese of Lisieux is the patron saint of missionaries ? which attracted Agnes to her ? as well as the patron saint of florists, Australia, AIDS sufferers and others. Teresa of Avila is the patron saint of people in religious orders, lacemakers, Spain and more. Teresa began teaching history and geography in Calcutta at St. Mary?s, a high school for the daughters of the wealthy. She remained there for 15 years and enjoyed the work, but was distressed by the poverty she saw all around her. In 1946, Teresa traveled to Darjeeling for a retreat. It was on that journey that she realized what her true calling was: ?I heard the call to give up all and follow Christ into the slums to serve him among the poorest of the poor.? It took two years of preparation before she was able to begin doing the work she felt compelled to do. She needed to receive permission from the Sisters of Loreto to leave the order ? while retaining her vows ? as well as permission from the Archbishop of Calcutta to live and work among the poor. She also prepared by taking a nursing course. In 1948, Teresa set aside her nun?s habit ? adopting instead the simple sari and sandals worn by the women she would be living among ? and moved to a small rented hovel in the slums to begin her work.Teresa?s first year in the slums was particularly hard. She was used to a life of comparative comfort, and now she had no income and no way to obtain food and supplies other than begging. She was often tempted to return to convent life, and had to rely on her determination and faith to get herself through it.


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