• Sometimes we make two words into one: for example
    I've /aiv/ ( = I have); don't /daunt/ ( = do not).
    These forms are called 'contractions'. There are two kinds:
    [pronoun + auxiliary verb auxiliary verb + not]
    I've you'll he'd aren't isn't hadn't
    we're they've it's don't won't (= will not)
    The forms Ve, '//,'d, and 're are only written after pronouns, but we write 's ( = is/has) after nouns and question-words as well.
    My father's a gardener. Where's the toilet?
    The apostrophe (') goes in the same place as the letters that we leave out: has not = hasn't (NOT ha'snt).
    Contractions are common in informal speech and writing; they are not used in a formal style.
  • Sometimes an expression can have two possible contractions. For she had not, we can say she'd not or she hadn't; for he will not, we can say he'll not and he won't.
    In Southern British English, the forms with n't are more common in most cases (for example she hadn't, he won't).
    We do not use double contractions: she'sn't is impossible.
  • Contractions are unstressed. When an auxiliary verb is stressed (for example, at the end of a clause), a contraction is not possible. Compare:
    You're late Yes, you are (NOT Yes, you're )
    I've forgotten. Yes, I have (NOT Yes;-I've.)
    However, negative contractions are stressed, and we can use them at the ends of clauses.
    No, you aren't No, you haven't
    Contractions: pronunciation and meaning
    1 am
    1 have
    /ail /
    1 will/shall
    1 had/would/should
    /jo :(!)/
    you are
    you have
    you will
    you had/would
    he is/has
    he will
    he had/would
    she is/has
    she will
    she had/would
    it is/has
    /itl /
    it will
    it had/would (not often written)
    we are
    we have
    we will/shall
    we had/would
    they are
    they have
    they will
    they had/would
    / a:nt/
    are not
    could not
    daren 't
    dare not
    did not
    /' dAznt/
    does not
    do not
    has not
    have not
    hadn 't
    had not
    Isn 't
    is not
    might not
    must not
    need not
    ought not
    shall not
    should not
    wasn 't
    /' WDznt/
    was not
    were not
    will not
    wouldn 't
    would not
    a Am not is contracted to aren't (Ia:nt/) in questions.
    I'm late, aren't 17
    b In non-standard English, ain 't is used as a contraction of am not, are not, is not, have not and has not.
    c Do not confuse it's and its.
    d For the contraction let's,
  • --- >>>
  • 'copula1 verbs
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  • be + infinitive
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  • be: progressive tenses
  • because and because of
  • before (adverb)
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  • begin and start
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  • both (of) with nouns and pronouns
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  • bring and take
  • British and American English
  • broad and wide
  • but = except
  • by: time
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  • can and could: forms
  • can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
  • can: permission, offers, requests and orders
  • can: possibility and probability
  • close and shut
  • come and go
  • comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
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  • comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
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  • conditional
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  • country
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  • dates
  • determiners
  • discourse markers
  • do + -ing
  • do and make
  • do: auxiliary verb
  • during and for
  • during and in
  • each and every
  • each other and one another
  • each: grammar
  • either... or...
  • either: determiner
  • ellipsis (leaving words out)
  • else
  • emphasis
  • emphatic structures with it and what
  • enjoy
  • enough
  • even
  • eventual(ly)
  • ever
  • every and every one
  • except
  • except and except for
  • exclamations
  • excuse me, pardon and sorry
  • expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
  • explain
  • fairly, quite, rather and pretty
  • far and a long way
  • farther and further
  • fast
  • feel
  • fewer and less
  • for + object + infinitive
  • for, since, from, ago and before
  • for: purpose
  • future perfect
  • future progressive
  • future: introduction
  • future: present progressive and going to
  • future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
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  • gender (masculine and feminine language)
  • get (+ object) + verb form
  • get + noun, adjective, adverb particle or preposition
  • get and go: movement
  • go ... -ing
  • go meaning'become'
  • go: been and gone
  • had better
  • half (of)
  • hard and hardly
  • have (got) to
  • have (got): possession, relationships etc
  • have + object + verb form
  • have: actions
  • have: auxiliary verb
  • have: introduction
  • hear and listen (to)
  • help
  • here and there
  • holiday and holidays
  • home
  • hope
  • how and what... like?
  • if only
  • if so and if not
  • if-sentences with could and might
  • if: ordinary tenses
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  • ill and sick
  • imperative
  • in and into (prepositions)
  • in case
  • in spite of
  • indeed
  • infinitive after who, what, how etc
  • infinitive of purpose
  • infinitive without to
  • infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
  • infinitive: use
  • instead of... -ing
  • inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
  • inversion: whole verb before subject
  • irregular verbs
  • it's time
  • it: preparatory object
  • it: preparatory subject
  • last and the last
  • let's
  • letters
  • likely
  • long and for a long time
  • look
  • look (at), watch and see
  • marry and divorce
  • may and might: forms
  • may and might: permission
  • may and might: probability
  • mind
  • modal auxiliary verbs
  • more (of): determiner
  • most (of): determiner
  • much (of), many (of): determiners
  • much, many, a lot etc
  • must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
  • must: deduction
  • must: forms
  • must: obligation
  • names and titles
  • nationality words
  • need
  • negative questions
  • negative structures
  • neither (of): determiner
  • neither, nor and not... either
  • neither... nor...
  • next and nearest
  • next and the next
  • no and none
  • no and not
  • no and not a/not any
  • no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
  • non-progressive verbs
  • noun + noun
  • numbers
  • once
  • one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
  • one: substitute word
  • other and others
  • ought
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  • passive structures: introduction
  • passive verb forms
  • past tense with present or future meaning
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  • past time: simple past
  • past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
  • perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
  • personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
  • play and game
  • please and thank you
  • possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
  • possessive's: forms
  • possessive's: use
  • possessives: my and mine, etc
  • prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
  • prepositions after particular words and expressions
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  • prepositions before particular words and expressions
  • prepositions: expressions without prepositions
  • present tenses: introduction
  • present tenses: present progressive
  • present tenses: simple present
  • progressive tenses with always
  • punctuation: apostrophe
  • punctuation: colon
  • punctuation: comma
  • punctuation: dash
  • punctuation: quotation marks
  • punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
  • question tags
  • questions: basic rules
  • questions: reply questions
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  • quite
  • real(ly)
  • reflexive pronouns
  • relative pronouns
  • relative pronouns: what
  • relative pronouns: whose
  • relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
  • remind
  • reported speech and direct speech
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  • road and street
  • say and tell
  • see
  • seem
  • shall
  • short answers
  • should
  • should after why and how
  • should and would
  • should, ought and must
  • should: (If I were you) I should ...
  • similar words
  • since (conjunction of time): tenses
  • singular and plural: anybody etc
  • singular and plural: irregular plurals
  • singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
  • singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
  • singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
  • singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
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  • slow(ly)
  • small and little
  • smell
  • so am I, so do I etc
  • so and not with hope, believe etc
  • some and any
  • some/any and no article
  • some: special uses
  • somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
  • sound
  • spelling and pronunciation
  • spelling: -ise and -ize
  • spelling: -ly
  • spelling: capital letters
  • spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
  • spelling: doubling final consonants
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  • spelling: full stops with abbreviations
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  • spelling: ie and ei
  • spelling: y and i
  • still, yet and already
  • subject and object forms
  • subjunctive
  • such and so
  • suggest
  • surely
  • sympathetic
  • take
  • take (time)
  • tall and high
  • taste
  • telephoning
  • telling the time
  • tenses in subordinate clauses
  • that: omission
  • the same
  • there is
  • think
  • this and that
  • too
  • travel, journey and trip
  • unless and if not
  • until and by
  • until and to
  • used to + infinitive
  • verbs with object complements
  • verbs with two objects
  • way
  • weak and strong forms
  • well
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  • whether... or...
  • which, what and who: question words
  • who ever, what ever, how ever etc
  • whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
  • will
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  • worth ... -ing
  • would
  • would rather
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