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automobile / car / vehicle

The word automobile is just another name for a car. In casual everyday English, we usually use the word car.

The word vehicle describes the more general category - it means a device for transporting people or things. Cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, military tanks, sleds, horse-drawn wagons, even bicycles can all be considered vehicles.

All cars are also vehicles - but not all vehicles are cars.

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1. a / an / one
2. able / capable
3. accident / incident
4. accurate / exact / precise
5. ache / pain / hurt
6. actual / current / present
7. administrator / boss / manager
8. adverse / averse
9. advice / advise
10. affect / effect
11. afraid / scared / frightened
12. after / later
13. agenda / itinerary / schedule
14. ago / back / before
15. aid / assist / help
16. aim / goal / objective
17. alien / foreigner / stranger
18. alive / life / live
19. all / whole / every
20. all of / each of
21. all ready / already / all right / alright
22. allow / let / permit
23. allude / elude
24. almost / mostly / nearly
25. alone / lonely / only
26. already / yet
27. also / as well / too
28. altar / alter
29. although / though / even though
30. among / between
31. amoral / immoral
32. amount / number / quantity
33. ancient / antique
34. angry / upset
35. another / other / others
36. answer / reply / respond
37. any / some
38. apartment / flat / studio
39. apologize / sorry
40. apology / excuse
41. appraise / apprise
42. arrive / come / get / reach
43. as far as / as long as / as soon as
44. assure / ensure / insure
45. automobile / car / vehicle
46. await / wait / hope / expect
47. award / reward / prize
48. awkward / embarrassing
49. baggage / luggage
50. beach / coast / shore
51. beautiful / pretty
52. become / get / turn
53. been / gone
54. before / in front of / opposite / across from
55. beg / plead
56. begin / start
57. belong to / belong with / belong in
58. below / under / beneath / underneath
59. beside / besides
60. big / large
61. big / small / long / short / tall / huge / tiny
62. bill / invoice / receipt
63. blanket / comforter / quilt
64. borrow / lend / loan / owe
65. bother / disturb
66. bravery / courage
67. bring / take
68. bring up / grow up
69. Britain / England / the United Kingdom
70. broad / wide
71. by / until
72. can / could / able to
73. capital / capitol
74. carpet / mat / rug
75. ceiling / roof
76. chance / possibility / opportunity
77. change / switch
78. chauffeur / driver
79. city / downtown / town
80. classic / classical
81. clever / intelligent / smart
82. close / shut
83. close to / near / next to
84. cloth / clothes / clothing
85. collect / gather
86. come back / go back / get back
87. compliment / complement
88. concern / concerned / concerning
89. confident / confidant / confidence
90. continually / continuously
91. convince / persuade
92. could / should / would
93. council / counsel
94. critic / critical / criticism / critique
95. cure / treat / heal / recover
96. custom / habit
97. deadly / fatal / lethal
98. decent / descent / dissent
99. decline / deny / refuse / reject
100. defect / fault / flaw
101. definitely / definitively
102. delay / late / postpone
103. despite / in spite of
104. die / died / dead
105. difficult / hard
106. dilemma / quandary
107. dinner / supper / meal / snack
108. dirt / earth / soil
109. dirty / messy
110. disability / handicap / impairment
111. discover / find out / notice / realize
112. discreet / discrete
113. disease / illness
114. disinterested / uninterested
115. distinct / distinctive
116. do / make
117. dress / dressed / wear
118. during / while / meanwhile / meantime
119. e.g. / i.e.
120. early / soon
121. earn / gain / win
122. economic / economical
123. effective / efficient
124. either / neither
125. electric / electrical / electronic
126. empathy / sympathy
127. employees / staff
128. end / finish
129. enough / too
130. enquire / inquire
131. especially / specially
132. every day / everyday
133. ex- / former / previous
134. explore / exploit
135. extend / expand
136. famous / infamous
137. farther / further
138. fee / fare / tax
139. female / feminine / woman
140. few / little / less / fewer
141. fit / match / suit
142. floor / ground
143. for / since
144. forest / jungle / wood / woods
145. fun / funny
146. girl / lady / woman
147. good / well
148. good evening / good night
149. gratuity / tip
150. guarantee / warranty
151. gut / guts
152. hard / hardly
153. have / have got
154. have to / must / need to
155. haven't / don't have
156. hear / listen
157. hijack / kidnap
158. historic / historical
159. holiday / vacation
160. hope / wish
161. hopefully / thankfully
162. hostel / hotel / motel
163. house / home
164. how about...? / what about...?
165. human / humankind / human being / man / mankind
166. hundred / hundreds
167. I / my / me / mine / myself
168. I = subject
169. if / whether
170. If I was... / If I were...
171. ignore / neglect
172. ill / sick
173. impending / pending
174. imply / infer
175. in / into / inside / within
176. in / on / at
177. incite / insight
178. income / salary / wage
179. Indian / indigenous / Native American
180. inhabit / live / reside
181. intend / tend
182. interested / interesting
183. interfere / intervene
184. its / it's
185. job / work / career
186. just / only
187. kinds / types / sorts
188. know / meet
189. last / latest
190. last / past
191. late / lately
192. lay / lie
193. like / as
194. little / small
195. look / see / watch
196. lose / loose
197. lose / miss
198. made of / made from
199. marriage / married / wedding
200. may / might
201. moral / morale
202. Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Miss
203. music / song
204. nausea / nauseous / queasy
205. north / northern
206. notable / noticeable
207. ocean / sea / lake / pond
208. oppress / suppress / repress
209. overtake / take over
210. pass away / pass out
211. pass the time / spend time
212. peak / pique
213. persons / peoples
214. poison / venom
215. politics / policy
216. poor / pore / pour
217. pray / prey
218. principal / principle
219. problem / trouble
220. quiet / silent
221. raise / rise / arise
222. regard / regards / regardless
223. regretful / regrettable
224. relation / relationship
225. remember / remind / reminder
226. replace / substitute
227. resolve / solve
228. review / revise
229. rob / thief / steal
230. safety / security
231. sale / sell
232. say / tell / speak
233. scream / shout
234. sensible / sensitive
235. shade / shadow
236. so / such
237. so / very / a lot
238. some time / sometime / sometimes
239. stuff / things
240. such as / as such
241. suppose / supposed to
242. then / than
243. think about / think of
244. tide / waves
245. till / until
246. to / for
247. too / very
248. travel / trip / journey
249. United
250. wake / awake / sleep / asleep
251. wander / wonder
252. wary / weary
253. what / which
254. which / that
255. who / whom
256. will / would
257. worse / worst
258. year-old / years old
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  • World Architecture

    Persepolis

    Iran
    The ruins of Persepolis (in Persian, Parsa) lie at the foot of Kuh-i-Rahmat (Mountain of Mercy) beside a small river on the Marv Dasht plain of southwestern Iran, about 400 miles (640 kilometers) south of Tehran. Widely held to be one of the greatest architectural complexes of the ancient world, and even claimed to be the most beautiful the world has ever seen, it was probably commissioned by Darius I between 518 and 516 b.c. as the ceremonial center and temporary royal residence of the First Persian (Achaemenian) Empire. Persepolis flourished under later kings. Xerxes I (reigned 486 465 b.c.) built the Throne Hall and the ceremonial gateway. His son Artaxerxes I (464 425) finished the hall, Artaxerxes II (ca. 350) built the so-called Unfinished Palace, and more buildings were added as late as the reign of Artaxerxes III, who died only eight years before the city was looted and burned by Alexander the Greats armies in 330 b.c. Helped by traitors, the Macedonians took Persepolis by surprise, massacred the defenders, and stripped the palaces and the treasury of gold and silver. The earliest Achaemenian capital was established by Cyrus I at Pasargadae, 48 miles (77 kilometers) to the north of the Persepolis site. Soon the administrative center was moved to Susa, a further 230 miles (370 kilometers) north, which was better placed strategically for dealings with Mesopotamia. Darius I then decided, for his own reasons, to create Persepolis perhaps he wanted to build a dynastic shrine in the Achaemenian homeland. Or there may have been a political motive. But Persepolis was never a capital, or even a city in any sense of that word. It was established as a venue where the subject nations would pay homage to the Persian kings. There were no temples, and its palaces were for temporary occupation only. Persepolis stood on a half-constructed, half-natural limestone terrace that measured about 1,475 feet north to south and about 985 feet east to west (450 by 300 meters), rose up to 60 feet (18 meters) above the plain, and was surrounded by a fortified triple wall. Its northern part, with the Gate of Xerxes, the Audience Hall of the Apadana, and the Throne Hall, was the ceremonial precinct, to which access was restricted. The southern part housed the Palaces of Darius (Tachara), Xerxes (Hadish), and Artaxerxes III, the Harem, the Council Hall (Tripylon), treasuries, barracks, and other ancillary buildings such as the royal stables and chariot house. The main ceremonial approach to the platform was at the northwest corner by a 23-foot-wide (7-meter) monumental stairway of over 100 shallow steps it was richly carved in low relief with symbols of the god Ahura Mazda and sculptures of people bringing annual tribute to the Achaemenid kings. The stair led to the only entrance to the terrace, the Gate of Xerxes (called the Gate of All Nations), a square hall built of decorated sun-dried brick, its roof supported by four columns. It had three huge doorways, 36 feet high, with double doors of timber sheathed in decorated metal. The southern door opened into a courtyard before the Apadana, the audience hall of Darius and Xerxes. This vast 198-foot-square space the largest building of the complex was a forest of thirty-six stone columns, rising more than 60 feet (19 meters) from bell-shaped bases and crowned by capitals decorated with double bulls, lions, human, or mythical horned lions heads, supporting a roof frame, built, of cedar imported from Lebanon. The processional way through the eastern door of the Gate of Xerxes led visitors to the east before then turning south toward the Throne Hall (also known as the Hall of a Hundred Columns), a 230-foot-square (70-meter) room containing literally 100 columns. Its principal portico, facing north, was flanked by two huge stone bulls, and its eight stone portals were decorated with low reliefs of the spring festival and scenes of the king fighting monsters. On the Persian New Year, Now Ruz (21 March), delegates from the twenty-eight subject nations would pass to the Throne Hall to pay homage and present their gifts and offerings silver, gold, weapons, textiles, jewelry, and even animals. Later, when the treasury at the southeast corner of the terrace could no longer hold the tributes, the Throne Hall also served to store and display the riches of the Persian Empire. All these buildings glowed with color: green stucco predominated, and the figures in the relief carvings were brightly painted. In much Achaemenian architecture, mud-brick walls were faced with blue, white, yellow, and green glazed bricks with animal and floral ornaments. The forests of pillars, many of them sheathed in gold and embellished with ivory, were hung with embroidered curtains. Precious stones were used in mosaics. The long-forgotten site of Persepolis was rediscovered in 1620, and although many subsequent visitors wrote of it, serious investigation did not commence until 1931. James Breasted of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago commissioned Professor Ernst Herzfeld of Berlin to excavate and (where possible) restore the remains of the city. Herzfeld (working 1931 1934) and Erich Schmidt (1934 1939) thoroughly documented the extensive ruins. UNESCO declared Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.


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