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ceiling / roof

The upper interior surface of a room is called the ceiling. The upper exterior surface of a building is called the roof.

A tall apartment building has many ceilings inside it, because each level has its own ceiling - but it only has one roof, at the very top.

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1. a / an / one
2. able / capable
3. accident / incident
4. accurate / exact / precise
5. ache / pain / hurt
6. actual / current / present
7. administrator / boss / manager
8. adverse / averse
9. advice / advise
10. affect / effect
11. afraid / scared / frightened
12. after / later
13. agenda / itinerary / schedule
14. ago / back / before
15. aid / assist / help
16. aim / goal / objective
17. alien / foreigner / stranger
18. alive / life / live
19. all / whole / every
20. all of / each of
21. all ready / already / all right / alright
22. allow / let / permit
23. allude / elude
24. almost / mostly / nearly
25. alone / lonely / only
26. already / yet
27. also / as well / too
28. altar / alter
29. although / though / even though
30. among / between
31. amoral / immoral
32. amount / number / quantity
33. ancient / antique
34. angry / upset
35. another / other / others
36. answer / reply / respond
37. any / some
38. apartment / flat / studio
39. apologize / sorry
40. apology / excuse
41. appraise / apprise
42. arrive / come / get / reach
43. as far as / as long as / as soon as
44. assure / ensure / insure
45. automobile / car / vehicle
46. await / wait / hope / expect
47. award / reward / prize
48. awkward / embarrassing
49. baggage / luggage
50. beach / coast / shore
51. beautiful / pretty
52. become / get / turn
53. been / gone
54. before / in front of / opposite / across from
55. beg / plead
56. begin / start
57. belong to / belong with / belong in
58. below / under / beneath / underneath
59. beside / besides
60. big / large
61. big / small / long / short / tall / huge / tiny
62. bill / invoice / receipt
63. blanket / comforter / quilt
64. borrow / lend / loan / owe
65. bother / disturb
66. bravery / courage
67. bring / take
68. bring up / grow up
69. Britain / England / the United Kingdom
70. broad / wide
71. by / until
72. can / could / able to
73. capital / capitol
74. carpet / mat / rug
75. ceiling / roof
76. chance / possibility / opportunity
77. change / switch
78. chauffeur / driver
79. city / downtown / town
80. classic / classical
81. clever / intelligent / smart
82. close / shut
83. close to / near / next to
84. cloth / clothes / clothing
85. collect / gather
86. come back / go back / get back
87. compliment / complement
88. concern / concerned / concerning
89. confident / confidant / confidence
90. continually / continuously
91. convince / persuade
92. could / should / would
93. council / counsel
94. critic / critical / criticism / critique
95. cure / treat / heal / recover
96. custom / habit
97. deadly / fatal / lethal
98. decent / descent / dissent
99. decline / deny / refuse / reject
100. defect / fault / flaw
101. definitely / definitively
102. delay / late / postpone
103. despite / in spite of
104. die / died / dead
105. difficult / hard
106. dilemma / quandary
107. dinner / supper / meal / snack
108. dirt / earth / soil
109. dirty / messy
110. disability / handicap / impairment
111. discover / find out / notice / realize
112. discreet / discrete
113. disease / illness
114. disinterested / uninterested
115. distinct / distinctive
116. do / make
117. dress / dressed / wear
118. during / while / meanwhile / meantime
119. e.g. / i.e.
120. early / soon
121. earn / gain / win
122. economic / economical
123. effective / efficient
124. either / neither
125. electric / electrical / electronic
126. empathy / sympathy
127. employees / staff
128. end / finish
129. enough / too
130. enquire / inquire
131. especially / specially
132. every day / everyday
133. ex- / former / previous
134. explore / exploit
135. extend / expand
136. famous / infamous
137. farther / further
138. fee / fare / tax
139. female / feminine / woman
140. few / little / less / fewer
141. fit / match / suit
142. floor / ground
143. for / since
144. forest / jungle / wood / woods
145. fun / funny
146. girl / lady / woman
147. good / well
148. good evening / good night
149. gratuity / tip
150. guarantee / warranty
151. gut / guts
152. hard / hardly
153. have / have got
154. have to / must / need to
155. haven't / don't have
156. hear / listen
157. hijack / kidnap
158. historic / historical
159. holiday / vacation
160. hope / wish
161. hopefully / thankfully
162. hostel / hotel / motel
163. house / home
164. how about...? / what about...?
165. human / humankind / human being / man / mankind
166. hundred / hundreds
167. I / my / me / mine / myself
168. I = subject
169. if / whether
170. If I was... / If I were...
171. ignore / neglect
172. ill / sick
173. impending / pending
174. imply / infer
175. in / into / inside / within
176. in / on / at
177. incite / insight
178. income / salary / wage
179. Indian / indigenous / Native American
180. inhabit / live / reside
181. intend / tend
182. interested / interesting
183. interfere / intervene
184. its / it's
185. job / work / career
186. just / only
187. kinds / types / sorts
188. know / meet
189. last / latest
190. last / past
191. late / lately
192. lay / lie
193. like / as
194. little / small
195. look / see / watch
196. lose / loose
197. lose / miss
198. made of / made from
199. marriage / married / wedding
200. may / might
201. moral / morale
202. Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Miss
203. music / song
204. nausea / nauseous / queasy
205. north / northern
206. notable / noticeable
207. ocean / sea / lake / pond
208. oppress / suppress / repress
209. overtake / take over
210. pass away / pass out
211. pass the time / spend time
212. peak / pique
213. persons / peoples
214. poison / venom
215. politics / policy
216. poor / pore / pour
217. pray / prey
218. principal / principle
219. problem / trouble
220. quiet / silent
221. raise / rise / arise
222. regard / regards / regardless
223. regretful / regrettable
224. relation / relationship
225. remember / remind / reminder
226. replace / substitute
227. resolve / solve
228. review / revise
229. rob / thief / steal
230. safety / security
231. sale / sell
232. say / tell / speak
233. scream / shout
234. sensible / sensitive
235. shade / shadow
236. so / such
237. so / very / a lot
238. some time / sometime / sometimes
239. stuff / things
240. such as / as such
241. suppose / supposed to
242. then / than
243. think about / think of
244. tide / waves
245. till / until
246. to / for
247. too / very
248. travel / trip / journey
249. United
250. wake / awake / sleep / asleep
251. wander / wonder
252. wary / weary
253. what / which
254. which / that
255. who / whom
256. will / would
257. worse / worst
258. year-old / years old
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  • World Architecture

    English landscape gardens

    Most of Englands apparently natural countryside is in fact contrived, the result of a revolutionary movement in garden design, the discipline first namedlandscape architecture by Humphry Repton 1752 1818. The English eighteenth-century landscape garden, which would be internationally imitated, was possibly Britains main contribution to European esthetics. Unlike traditional gardens, it was distinguished by asymmetry and informality. It incorporated artificial hills and free-form lakes redirected rivers sinuous pathways and drives strategically placed stands of trees in grassy fields and, of course, the great house, from which carefully composed and uninterrupted vistas opened to surrounding parkland. The movement was linked with the notorious Enclosure Acts, which allowed the English gentry to resume what formerly had been common land. Large landholdings brought profit as well as social and political power, displayed in the creation of expansive parks surrounding a country seat. In a 1713 essay the poet Alexander Pope 1688 1744 suggested that formal English gardens be replaced by theamiable simplicity of unadorned nature. He entreated,In all, let nature never be forgot.1/4 Consult the genius of the place. The challenge was taken up by three designers: William Kent, Lancelot Brown, and Repton, who within a century had banished geometry from the English countryside. Kent 1685 1748, calledfather of the English landscape garden, was trained as a sign painter and also worked as a coach builders apprentice. Although never a successful artist, for ten years he studied painting in Rome, earning his living as an art dealer. In Italy in 1715 he met Lord Burlington, who became his patron. Back to London in the 1720s, he worked with Burlington on Chiswick House before engaging in landscape design. The critic Horace Walpole declared that Kentleaped the fence and saw that all of nature was a garden. Inspired by the works of Lorraine, Poussin, and Rosa, and believing thatall gardening is a landscape painting, Kent regarded his gardens as classical pictures, replete with antique pavilions and composed to maximize the artistic impact of form, light, and color. In 1737 he was invited to Rousham in Oxfordshire to redesign the seventeenth-century house, as well as a garden laid out by the Royal Gardener, Charles Bridgeman d. 1738, in the 1720s. Kent added wings and a stable block to the house and made interior alterations, but the garden completed in 1741 is his best surviving work, thought by many to bethe jewel of the English landscape movement. It marks a transition between the great English Restoration gardens and Viscount Cobhams house, Stowe, in Buckinghamshire. At the end of the 1600s, Stowe had a modest Italian-inspired parterre garden. From about 1713 the surrounding park, designed by Bridgeman, was dotted with Baroque pavilions and monuments by the architect John Vanbrugh. Then, in the 1730s, Cobham appointed Kent and the Palladian architect James Gibbs to work with Bridgeman. Kent, convinced thatnature abhors a straight line, began to replace the geometrical gardens with winding, shaded paths and created a series of painterly views that unfolded on a walk through the landscape, the beginning of the most important early English landscape gardens. Bridgemans Octagonal Pond and the Eleven Acre Lake were given a free form. Other changes followed with the arrival of the greatest champion of thenatural landscape, Lancelot Brown. Brown 1715 1783 began his horticultural career as apprentice to Sir William Lorraine. After working for Sir Richard Grenville at Wotton, he moved to Buckinghamshire in 1739, and two years later he was an undergardener at Stowe. He remained for seven years as a disciple and eventually son-in-law of Kent and became immersed in the new English style of landscape gardening. Kent was still improving the garden, although he undertook other projects. Brown designed theGrecian Valley, a composition of landform and forest. Kent died in 1748 and Lord Cobham a year later. Brown left Stowe and in 1751 established a landscape practice based in London. He later became head gardener to the Duke of Grafton and in 1761 was appointed Master Gardener at Hampton Court Palace. During his time at Stowe, his employer had allowed him to accept commissions from a number of his friends, and Browns practice, thus established, grew rapidly. Because he would enthusiastically tell prospective clients of thegreat capabilities of their properties, he earned the nicknameCapability Brown His grand visions, realized in the gardens of about 170 of Englands stately rural houses, have been described as idealizations of the English countryside. They accentuated, readimproved the undulating natural landscape their asymmetrical compositions were enhanced with winding bands or clumps of trees and vast, rolling lawns, usually focused on a lake. At Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, often hailed as his magnum opus, he removed Henry Wises extensive parterre and brought the lawns right to the house, planting dark trees to frame the landscape beyond. He was later criticized for such wanton destruction of the works of earlier gardeners. A story underlines his enormous impact upon the English countryside: asked by an English lady to make a plan for her Irish estate, Brown is said to have replied,No, madam, I cant, I havent finished England yet. Humphry Repton, probably Englands greatest landscape theorist, was a minor landholder who had failed in business and at farming. In 1788 he took up landscape design when a family friend, the Duke of Portland, asked him to alter his garden. A key to his success was his skill as a watercolorist. He could produce attractive renderings of his schemesan important factor in his profession because clients needed to visualize what might not be realized for years. Repton freely admitted his debt to Brown and continued many of his practices. Because of the Napoleonic Wars, his opportunities were limited. He produced landscapes, seldom as extensive as Browns, throughout England, among them many for terraces or smaller gardens close to houses. After about 1790 Repton created a transition between houses and their grounds by means of steps, terraces, and balustrades, through anatural park to a distant composed view. His idealsutility, proportion, and unitywere best expressed at Woburn Abbey, where he augmented an existing landscape garden with a private garden, a flower garden, and what he called anAmerican garden. In some senses, he began the transition from the informal landscape garden to the formality of the Victorian era. In 1795 he published Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening. The esthetic mood in England was changing. From about 1770 Brown came under critical attack for, of all things, hisexcessive formalism and lack of


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