cExams.net

historic / historical

The word historical describes anything related to the past, to history:
  • We need to consider the current conflict from a historical perspective.
  • The city center contains many cultural and historical monuments.
  • I love reading historical fiction.

    Historical things can be important or unimportant.

    The word historic describes things that were very important or influential in history (or a current event that will likely be regarded as important in the future).
  • The army's historic victory was the turning point in the war.
  • Apollo 11 was the historic spaceflight that brought the first humans to the moon.
  • This is a historic treaty - it is the first time there has ever been a peace agreement in the region.

  • --- >>>
    1. a / an / one
    2. able / capable
    3. accident / incident
    4. accurate / exact / precise
    5. ache / pain / hurt
    6. actual / current / present
    7. administrator / boss / manager
    8. adverse / averse
    9. advice / advise
    10. affect / effect
    11. afraid / scared / frightened
    12. after / later
    13. agenda / itinerary / schedule
    14. ago / back / before
    15. aid / assist / help
    16. aim / goal / objective
    17. alien / foreigner / stranger
    18. alive / life / live
    19. all / whole / every
    20. all of / each of
    21. all ready / already / all right / alright
    22. allow / let / permit
    23. allude / elude
    24. almost / mostly / nearly
    25. alone / lonely / only
    26. already / yet
    27. also / as well / too
    28. altar / alter
    29. although / though / even though
    30. among / between
    31. amoral / immoral
    32. amount / number / quantity
    33. ancient / antique
    34. angry / upset
    35. another / other / others
    36. answer / reply / respond
    37. any / some
    38. apartment / flat / studio
    39. apologize / sorry
    40. apology / excuse
    41. appraise / apprise
    42. arrive / come / get / reach
    43. as far as / as long as / as soon as
    44. assure / ensure / insure
    45. automobile / car / vehicle
    46. await / wait / hope / expect
    47. award / reward / prize
    48. awkward / embarrassing
    49. baggage / luggage
    50. beach / coast / shore
    51. beautiful / pretty
    52. become / get / turn
    53. been / gone
    54. before / in front of / opposite / across from
    55. beg / plead
    56. begin / start
    57. belong to / belong with / belong in
    58. below / under / beneath / underneath
    59. beside / besides
    60. big / large
    61. big / small / long / short / tall / huge / tiny
    62. bill / invoice / receipt
    63. blanket / comforter / quilt
    64. borrow / lend / loan / owe
    65. bother / disturb
    66. bravery / courage
    67. bring / take
    68. bring up / grow up
    69. Britain / England / the United Kingdom
    70. broad / wide
    71. by / until
    72. can / could / able to
    73. capital / capitol
    74. carpet / mat / rug
    75. ceiling / roof
    76. chance / possibility / opportunity
    77. change / switch
    78. chauffeur / driver
    79. city / downtown / town
    80. classic / classical
    81. clever / intelligent / smart
    82. close / shut
    83. close to / near / next to
    84. cloth / clothes / clothing
    85. collect / gather
    86. come back / go back / get back
    87. compliment / complement
    88. concern / concerned / concerning
    89. confident / confidant / confidence
    90. continually / continuously
    91. convince / persuade
    92. could / should / would
    93. council / counsel
    94. critic / critical / criticism / critique
    95. cure / treat / heal / recover
    96. custom / habit
    97. deadly / fatal / lethal
    98. decent / descent / dissent
    99. decline / deny / refuse / reject
    100. defect / fault / flaw
    101. definitely / definitively
    102. delay / late / postpone
    103. despite / in spite of
    104. die / died / dead
    105. difficult / hard
    106. dilemma / quandary
    107. dinner / supper / meal / snack
    108. dirt / earth / soil
    109. dirty / messy
    110. disability / handicap / impairment
    111. discover / find out / notice / realize
    112. discreet / discrete
    113. disease / illness
    114. disinterested / uninterested
    115. distinct / distinctive
    116. do / make
    117. dress / dressed / wear
    118. during / while / meanwhile / meantime
    119. e.g. / i.e.
    120. early / soon
    121. earn / gain / win
    122. economic / economical
    123. effective / efficient
    124. either / neither
    125. electric / electrical / electronic
    126. empathy / sympathy
    127. employees / staff
    128. end / finish
    129. enough / too
    130. enquire / inquire
    131. especially / specially
    132. every day / everyday
    133. ex- / former / previous
    134. explore / exploit
    135. extend / expand
    136. famous / infamous
    137. farther / further
    138. fee / fare / tax
    139. female / feminine / woman
    140. few / little / less / fewer
    141. fit / match / suit
    142. floor / ground
    143. for / since
    144. forest / jungle / wood / woods
    145. fun / funny
    146. girl / lady / woman
    147. good / well
    148. good evening / good night
    149. gratuity / tip
    150. guarantee / warranty
    151. gut / guts
    152. hard / hardly
    153. have / have got
    154. have to / must / need to
    155. haven't / don't have
    156. hear / listen
    157. hijack / kidnap
    158. historic / historical
    159. holiday / vacation
    160. hope / wish
    161. hopefully / thankfully
    162. hostel / hotel / motel
    163. house / home
    164. how about...? / what about...?
    165. human / humankind / human being / man / mankind
    166. hundred / hundreds
    167. I / my / me / mine / myself
    168. I = subject
    169. if / whether
    170. If I was... / If I were...
    171. ignore / neglect
    172. ill / sick
    173. impending / pending
    174. imply / infer
    175. in / into / inside / within
    176. in / on / at
    177. incite / insight
    178. income / salary / wage
    179. Indian / indigenous / Native American
    180. inhabit / live / reside
    181. intend / tend
    182. interested / interesting
    183. interfere / intervene
    184. its / it's
    185. job / work / career
    186. just / only
    187. kinds / types / sorts
    188. know / meet
    189. last / latest
    190. last / past
    191. late / lately
    192. lay / lie
    193. like / as
    194. little / small
    195. look / see / watch
    196. lose / loose
    197. lose / miss
    198. made of / made from
    199. marriage / married / wedding
    200. may / might
    201. moral / morale
    202. Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Miss
    203. music / song
    204. nausea / nauseous / queasy
    205. north / northern
    206. notable / noticeable
    207. ocean / sea / lake / pond
    208. oppress / suppress / repress
    209. overtake / take over
    210. pass away / pass out
    211. pass the time / spend time
    212. peak / pique
    213. persons / peoples
    214. poison / venom
    215. politics / policy
    216. poor / pore / pour
    217. pray / prey
    218. principal / principle
    219. problem / trouble
    220. quiet / silent
    221. raise / rise / arise
    222. regard / regards / regardless
    223. regretful / regrettable
    224. relation / relationship
    225. remember / remind / reminder
    226. replace / substitute
    227. resolve / solve
    228. review / revise
    229. rob / thief / steal
    230. safety / security
    231. sale / sell
    232. say / tell / speak
    233. scream / shout
    234. sensible / sensitive
    235. shade / shadow
    236. so / such
    237. so / very / a lot
    238. some time / sometime / sometimes
    239. stuff / things
    240. such as / as such
    241. suppose / supposed to
    242. then / than
    243. think about / think of
    244. tide / waves
    245. till / until
    246. to / for
    247. too / very
    248. travel / trip / journey
    249. United
    250. wake / awake / sleep / asleep
    251. wander / wonder
    252. wary / weary
    253. what / which
    254. which / that
    255. who / whom
    256. will / would
    257. worse / worst
    258. year-old / years old
  • Know Old Stamps
  • Healthy Mouth
  • Road Signs
  • Creative Valentines Day Gift
  • Benefits of Avocado
  • Benefits of Dill Seeds

  • World Architecture

    Hagia Sofia

    Istanbul, Turkey
    The great Church of the Holy Wisdom, known as Hagia Sofia or Sancta Sofia, in Istanbul, is the high point of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture, remarkable for its revolutionary dynamic structural system and the ingenuity of a plan that subordinates liturgy to form. It was dedicated by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in December 537. Like many churches, it was built on the site of former sacred structures, some of which predated Christianity. The earliest church had been replaced in 361 by the timber-roofed basilica Megala Ekklesia. Damaged during religious riots in 404, this second building was restored eleven years later under Emperor Theodosius II, only to be burned down in another uprising in 532. Within weeks Justinian commissioned the great church of Hagia Sofia. He had been, crowned in 527. Despite the fall of the Western Empire to Germanic invaders in the late fifth century, Justinian ensured that his Eastern Empire survived. He and his wife, Theodora, reigned as unofficial joint rulers, together transforming Constantinople into a city that was universally admired and envied. Justinian employed the architects Anthemios of Tralles and Isidor of Miletus to build a church of great size and magnificence, sparing no expense. Materials were transported from all over his domain. Dressed marble was plundered from classical pagan buildings it is said that eight red porphyry columns were brought from the Artemiseion at Ephesus new stone came from the finest marble quarries in Phrygia, Egypt, Thessaly, and the Morean Peninsula. The interiors were decorated with mosaics of gold, silver, glass, marble, and granite tesserae. Because of the urgency, tradition has it, 1,000 masons and 10,000 apprentices worked on the building. It was completed in just twenty days under five years. There is a story, perhaps apocryphal, that upon, first visiting the completed church Justinian exclaimed.Oh Solomon! I have excelled you! The central dome, framed with forty brick ribs, is slightly elliptical, its base measuring 101 by 104 feet 30.3 by 31.2 meters. It springs from pendentives at 183 feet 54 meters above the floor and rises to 226 feet 67.8 meters. There is a window between the bases of each pair of ribs, and the resulting ring of light creates the illusion that the dome is poised in the air with little apparent support. The true massiveness of the masonry structure is replaced with a virtual building created from lightnot only because the penetrating rays of the sun constantly change in angle and direction, but also because of the scintillation of the mosaic-covered surfaces as the light skips from facet to facet.Awesome in size and opulent in finish though it was, it is not for these reasons that Hagia Sofia is an architectural feat. It is because of its structural brilliance and the subtlety with which the spaces are articulatedunderlining the difference between the practical directness of Western architecture and the nuances of oriental. Nevertheless, the church remains Roman. The subdivision of its spaces according to their purposes coincides with contemporary Western basilicas: atrium, narthex, nave and aisles, sanctuary, apse, vestries, and altar are all present. There the similarity ends. Western churches were long and narrow, and their slender parallel walls supported timber-framed roofs. The plan of Hagia Sofia is almost square, approximately 250 by 220 feet 75 by 67 meters, and the four massive piers, each about 25 by 60 feet 7.6 by 18.3 meters, carry a domical roof. Yet when the spatial arrangement of the church is considered, it can be readily seen that by the use of elegant screens to separate aisles and nave, and the placing of the apse, the architects skillfully manipulated a vast single space to meet the liturgical program of the clergy. The interior space is made cruciform by projecting a large hemidome over the apse and smaller ones above the aisles. This daring experimentation with space was made possible through the use of the pendentive, a structural device that allowed Byzantine architects to satisfactorily roof a cubical volume with a dome. That had never been achieved in the West, and never before on such a scale in the East, from whose vernacular architecture it had been drawn.Hagia Sofia has undergone many changes in its 1,500-year lifetime, with both natural forces and desecration taking their toll. The church was structurally damaged by earthquake only a year after its dedication, and again in 557 and 559. In 562 it was restored and reinforced by Isidoros, nephew of the original architect, who also raised the dome by about 20 feet 6.25 meters. Further earthquake damage in 869 and 889 closed it for five years. The Iconoclasts vandalized the original mosaics in the eighth and ninth centuries, but most were replaced. Hagia Sofias finest ornaments were plundered by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and the building was seriously damaged. Large buttresses were added to the north and south facades in 1317, but that did not prevent considerable earthquake damage about thirty years later. Mehmet the Conqueror took Istanbul for Islam in 1453, and Hagia Sofia, although retaining its name, was put to use as a mosque. Large timber medallions with Koranic texts were hung on the walls of the interior and the Christian mosaics whitewashed over. Minarets were added at various times during the Ottoman period. The building became a museum in February 1935. At the end of the twentieth century Hagia Sofia stood on the United Nations World Heritage Watch List, one of the worlds 100 most threatened buildings.Despite


    Chourishi Systems