A holiday is a special day for religious or cultural reasons - such as Christmas, Easter, New Year's Eve, and your country's Independence Day. Some holidays are also official days off from work, and others are not.
A vacation is when you take multiple days off from work/school to relax and/or travel. However, American English speakers call this a vacation and British English speakers call this a holiday:
My parents are on vacation in Asia. (American English)
My parents are on holiday in Asia. (British English)
Ernst: Europe After the Rain II (1942) - Sumner Collection, Hartford
This painting was made by Ernst. He invented the technique of rubbings of textured surfaces and working with the forms that emerged. This painting makes extensive use of the techniques Ernst invented, portraying a ravaged landscape reminiscent of both twisted wreckage and rotting organic proliferation.