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ocean / sea / lake / pond

Technically, there is a difference between an ocean and a sea. An ocean is an extremely large body of salt water, and a sea is partially surrounded by land.

There are only five oceans: the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, and Antarctic Ocean. There are more than 50 seas, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Baltic Sea, Caribbean Sea, and South China Sea.

Most seas are connected to the ocean, although there are a few that are completely surrounded by land, like the Aral Sea, Caspian Sea, and Dead Sea.

However, when talking about salt water in general, many people use ocean and sea interchangeably.

A lake is an area of fresh water (not salty) that is completely surrounded by land. A pond is the same as a lake, only smaller.

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1. a / an / one
2. able / capable
3. accident / incident
4. accurate / exact / precise
5. ache / pain / hurt
6. actual / current / present
7. administrator / boss / manager
8. adverse / averse
9. advice / advise
10. affect / effect
11. afraid / scared / frightened
12. after / later
13. agenda / itinerary / schedule
14. ago / back / before
15. aid / assist / help
16. aim / goal / objective
17. alien / foreigner / stranger
18. alive / life / live
19. all / whole / every
20. all of / each of
21. all ready / already / all right / alright
22. allow / let / permit
23. allude / elude
24. almost / mostly / nearly
25. alone / lonely / only
26. already / yet
27. also / as well / too
28. altar / alter
29. although / though / even though
30. among / between
31. amoral / immoral
32. amount / number / quantity
33. ancient / antique
34. angry / upset
35. another / other / others
36. answer / reply / respond
37. any / some
38. apartment / flat / studio
39. apologize / sorry
40. apology / excuse
41. appraise / apprise
42. arrive / come / get / reach
43. as far as / as long as / as soon as
44. assure / ensure / insure
45. automobile / car / vehicle
46. await / wait / hope / expect
47. award / reward / prize
48. awkward / embarrassing
49. baggage / luggage
50. beach / coast / shore
51. beautiful / pretty
52. become / get / turn
53. been / gone
54. before / in front of / opposite / across from
55. beg / plead
56. begin / start
57. belong to / belong with / belong in
58. below / under / beneath / underneath
59. beside / besides
60. big / large
61. big / small / long / short / tall / huge / tiny
62. bill / invoice / receipt
63. blanket / comforter / quilt
64. borrow / lend / loan / owe
65. bother / disturb
66. bravery / courage
67. bring / take
68. bring up / grow up
69. Britain / England / the United Kingdom
70. broad / wide
71. by / until
72. can / could / able to
73. capital / capitol
74. carpet / mat / rug
75. ceiling / roof
76. chance / possibility / opportunity
77. change / switch
78. chauffeur / driver
79. city / downtown / town
80. classic / classical
81. clever / intelligent / smart
82. close / shut
83. close to / near / next to
84. cloth / clothes / clothing
85. collect / gather
86. come back / go back / get back
87. compliment / complement
88. concern / concerned / concerning
89. confident / confidant / confidence
90. continually / continuously
91. convince / persuade
92. could / should / would
93. council / counsel
94. critic / critical / criticism / critique
95. cure / treat / heal / recover
96. custom / habit
97. deadly / fatal / lethal
98. decent / descent / dissent
99. decline / deny / refuse / reject
100. defect / fault / flaw
101. definitely / definitively
102. delay / late / postpone
103. despite / in spite of
104. die / died / dead
105. difficult / hard
106. dilemma / quandary
107. dinner / supper / meal / snack
108. dirt / earth / soil
109. dirty / messy
110. disability / handicap / impairment
111. discover / find out / notice / realize
112. discreet / discrete
113. disease / illness
114. disinterested / uninterested
115. distinct / distinctive
116. do / make
117. dress / dressed / wear
118. during / while / meanwhile / meantime
119. e.g. / i.e.
120. early / soon
121. earn / gain / win
122. economic / economical
123. effective / efficient
124. either / neither
125. electric / electrical / electronic
126. empathy / sympathy
127. employees / staff
128. end / finish
129. enough / too
130. enquire / inquire
131. especially / specially
132. every day / everyday
133. ex- / former / previous
134. explore / exploit
135. extend / expand
136. famous / infamous
137. farther / further
138. fee / fare / tax
139. female / feminine / woman
140. few / little / less / fewer
141. fit / match / suit
142. floor / ground
143. for / since
144. forest / jungle / wood / woods
145. fun / funny
146. girl / lady / woman
147. good / well
148. good evening / good night
149. gratuity / tip
150. guarantee / warranty
151. gut / guts
152. hard / hardly
153. have / have got
154. have to / must / need to
155. haven't / don't have
156. hear / listen
157. hijack / kidnap
158. historic / historical
159. holiday / vacation
160. hope / wish
161. hopefully / thankfully
162. hostel / hotel / motel
163. house / home
164. how about...? / what about...?
165. human / humankind / human being / man / mankind
166. hundred / hundreds
167. I / my / me / mine / myself
168. I = subject
169. if / whether
170. If I was... / If I were...
171. ignore / neglect
172. ill / sick
173. impending / pending
174. imply / infer
175. in / into / inside / within
176. in / on / at
177. incite / insight
178. income / salary / wage
179. Indian / indigenous / Native American
180. inhabit / live / reside
181. intend / tend
182. interested / interesting
183. interfere / intervene
184. its / it's
185. job / work / career
186. just / only
187. kinds / types / sorts
188. know / meet
189. last / latest
190. last / past
191. late / lately
192. lay / lie
193. like / as
194. little / small
195. look / see / watch
196. lose / loose
197. lose / miss
198. made of / made from
199. marriage / married / wedding
200. may / might
201. moral / morale
202. Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Miss
203. music / song
204. nausea / nauseous / queasy
205. north / northern
206. notable / noticeable
207. ocean / sea / lake / pond
208. oppress / suppress / repress
209. overtake / take over
210. pass away / pass out
211. pass the time / spend time
212. peak / pique
213. persons / peoples
214. poison / venom
215. politics / policy
216. poor / pore / pour
217. pray / prey
218. principal / principle
219. problem / trouble
220. quiet / silent
221. raise / rise / arise
222. regard / regards / regardless
223. regretful / regrettable
224. relation / relationship
225. remember / remind / reminder
226. replace / substitute
227. resolve / solve
228. review / revise
229. rob / thief / steal
230. safety / security
231. sale / sell
232. say / tell / speak
233. scream / shout
234. sensible / sensitive
235. shade / shadow
236. so / such
237. so / very / a lot
238. some time / sometime / sometimes
239. stuff / things
240. such as / as such
241. suppose / supposed to
242. then / than
243. think about / think of
244. tide / waves
245. till / until
246. to / for
247. too / very
248. travel / trip / journey
249. United
250. wake / awake / sleep / asleep
251. wander / wonder
252. wary / weary
253. what / which
254. which / that
255. who / whom
256. will / would
257. worse / worst
258. year-old / years old
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  • World Architecture

    Chin Shi Huangdis tomb

    Xian, China
    In 1974, peasants digging a well in a field about 25 miles 40 kilometers east of Xian unearthed pits containing thousands of life-size, carefully detailed terra-cotta warriors, horses, and chariots. The soldiers were poised to defend the tomb of Chin Shi Huangdi 259 210 b.c.. Among the greatest archeological finds of the twentieth century, the ceramic army is but a small part of the great funerary monumenta necropolis with huge underground rooms around a gigantic burial moundthat the despotic ruler commissioned for himself many years before his death. The imperial tomb itself has not yet been uncovered. In 246 b.c., when he was thirteen years old, Ying Zheng ascended the throne of Chin, the strongest of Chinas seven surviving territories. Unifying the divided states into a single nation, in 221 b.c., he took the title Chin Shi Huangdi literallyChin, the First Emperor. Great changes ensued in his short, tyrannical reign. The feudal system was abolished, and China was divided into about forty provinces, all controlled by a centralized bureaucracy. To ensure its efficiency over such a vast area, Chin Shi Huangdi commissioned the construction of over 6,000 miles 10,000 kilometers of roads and more than 1,000 miles 1,600 kilometers of canals, which also served for irrigation and flood mitigation. Southward, his empire extended to Vietnams Red River Delta, encompassing most of what are now Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Provinces to the north, it reached as far as Lanzhou in Gansu Province and into parts of modern Korea. To defend his domain against nomad incursions, the first emperor commissioned the building of the Great Wall of China. He also initiated census taking, as well as the compulsory standardization of currency, weights and measures, writing, and even axle widths. As another means of control, in 213 b.c. he decreed that history and philosophy books, especially those contradicting Chin theories, should be burned. His despotism was resented by the common people. The foreign wars, the construction of the Wall, and other extravagant, self-indulgent public works including his tomb, supported by policies of military conscription, heavy taxation, and forced labor, had imposed a terrible financial and social cost. Toward the end of his life, fearing assassination, Chin Shi Huangdi became reclusive. He died in 210 b.c., and his empire collapsed. After eight years of widespread rebellions, Liu Pang founded the Han dynasty. The first-century-b.c. historian Sima Qian described Chin Shi Huangdis tomb as a microcosm of the universe. Ironically, the first emperors obsessive quest for an elixir of life had probably caused his madness and death he had ingested mercury as a means to immortality. Because it was intended to serve as Chin Shi Huangdis capital in the afterlife, the necropolis has many of the elements of a living city: encircling walls, parks and gardens, buildings for officials and the army, cemetery walls, and, of course, a palace. It was built mainly underground by according to historical records a labor force of 700,000 conscripts from all over China, over a period of thirty-six years. The 7,500-strong terra-cotta army stood guard in three vaults, about 0.75 mile 1.2 kilometers to the east. Their weapons were looted, possibly during the uprising after Chin Shi Huangdis death. The tomb complex proper, oriented perfectly to the cardinal points of the compass, was surrounded by a 65-foot-high 20-meter wall that enclosed the rectangular imperial tomb gardens, covering an area of about 1.3 by 0.6 miles 2.17 by 0.97 kilometers, In the center of the precinct stood the building in which funerary rituals were performed. Close to it on one side were three blocks housing the Residence of the Garden and Temple Officials on the other side were twenty-seven graves of Chin Shi Huangdis high-ranking counselors and bureaucrats, buried with him so they could continue to serve him. Nearly 100 other pits now containing the skeletons of horses and terra-cotta grooms were the emperors eternal stables. It is thought that other pits containing clay models of plants and birds were evocations of his parks and gardens The building known as the Main House, a sort of servery for Chin Shi Huangdis food, stood near the 164-foot 50-meter pyramidal grave mound, axially located at the southern end of the complex, within a second walled enclosure, measuring 749 by 632 yards 685 by 578 meters. There was a wide gate on each side. The burial chamber was lined with a waterproofing layer of bronze sheets. The tomb is believed to have been an opulent palace that accommodated all the emperors needs, based on his accustomed extravagant lifestyle. According to reports, it was rich withfine utensils, precious stones and rarities. There were scale models of palaces, towers, and official buildings, and a mechanically circulated system in which rivers of mercury represented the rivers of China and the Pacific Ocean, under a ceiling studded with pearls describing the constellations. Lamps burned whale oil to illuminate the space, and crossbow booby traps were installed to kill grave-robbers. An official account reads,Once the First Emperor was placed in the burial chamber and the treasures were sealed up, the middle and outer gates were shut to imprison all those who had worked on the tomb. No one came out. Trees and grass were then planted over the mausoleum to make if look like a hill cited in Cotterell 1981, 17. Archeological excavations continue at the site. Yuan Zhongyi, leader of the team of archeologists working on the grave site, believes that the burial ground extends over an area of about 20 square miles 50 square kilometers only a fifth of it has been uncovered. Work is funded by proceeds from the museum at the terra-cotta warriors site most of the money is used to maintain that site, but in 1997, Yuan Zhongyis annual budget was only U.S.$25,000, about a tenth of what is needed. Consequently, the dig at the tomb was temporarily suspended. The team also lacked the special conservation skills needed to handle the 2,000-year-old artifacts of silk and wood. Work resumed in 1999, and new discoveries continue.


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