Overtake (v.) means to catch up with something and then pass it. This can be in terms of movement/physical speed, or in terms of getting higher numbers:
With a final burst of speed, Gary overtook Paul and won the race.
The number of women in college has now overtaken the number of men.
Sales of the new product will likely overtake sales of the old product by the end of the year. (in these last two examples, we can also use "surpass")
To take over (v.) means to take control - one country can take over another country with military force; when a big company buys a smaller company, it takes over the management of the smaller company. The verb take over is two words, and the noun, referring to the action of taking control, is takeover.
Match : India V Zimbabwe Venue : Jodhpur, India : Year 2000
The brilliant 146 by the Little Master was filled with 17 hits to the fence and propelled India to 284 in their 50 overs during bilateral ODI series in the year 2000. This was later overshadowed by a magnificent partnership between the Flower brothers for Zimbabwe, who chased down the target with 1 ball to spare and 1 wicket in hand.