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principal / principle

A principle (n.) is a fundamental idea, belief, philosophy, or rule:
  • My daughter is learning the basic principles of physics in her science class.
  • Power in the hands of the people is one of the key principles of democracy.
  • He would never steal from the company - he's a man of high principles.

    The word principal has three meanings:

    1. As an adjective: the main or most important The lake is the principal water source for the city.

    2. As a noun: the director of an elementary, middle, or high school Students who misbehave are sent to the principal's office.

    3. As a noun (finance): the original amount of a debt (not counting the interest

    - the extra money that accumulates over time as the debt is not paid):

    At a 10% interest rate, a principal of $1,000 will accumulate $100 of interest.

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    1. a / an / one
    2. able / capable
    3. accident / incident
    4. accurate / exact / precise
    5. ache / pain / hurt
    6. actual / current / present
    7. administrator / boss / manager
    8. adverse / averse
    9. advice / advise
    10. affect / effect
    11. afraid / scared / frightened
    12. after / later
    13. agenda / itinerary / schedule
    14. ago / back / before
    15. aid / assist / help
    16. aim / goal / objective
    17. alien / foreigner / stranger
    18. alive / life / live
    19. all / whole / every
    20. all of / each of
    21. all ready / already / all right / alright
    22. allow / let / permit
    23. allude / elude
    24. almost / mostly / nearly
    25. alone / lonely / only
    26. already / yet
    27. also / as well / too
    28. altar / alter
    29. although / though / even though
    30. among / between
    31. amoral / immoral
    32. amount / number / quantity
    33. ancient / antique
    34. angry / upset
    35. another / other / others
    36. answer / reply / respond
    37. any / some
    38. apartment / flat / studio
    39. apologize / sorry
    40. apology / excuse
    41. appraise / apprise
    42. arrive / come / get / reach
    43. as far as / as long as / as soon as
    44. assure / ensure / insure
    45. automobile / car / vehicle
    46. await / wait / hope / expect
    47. award / reward / prize
    48. awkward / embarrassing
    49. baggage / luggage
    50. beach / coast / shore
    51. beautiful / pretty
    52. become / get / turn
    53. been / gone
    54. before / in front of / opposite / across from
    55. beg / plead
    56. begin / start
    57. belong to / belong with / belong in
    58. below / under / beneath / underneath
    59. beside / besides
    60. big / large
    61. big / small / long / short / tall / huge / tiny
    62. bill / invoice / receipt
    63. blanket / comforter / quilt
    64. borrow / lend / loan / owe
    65. bother / disturb
    66. bravery / courage
    67. bring / take
    68. bring up / grow up
    69. Britain / England / the United Kingdom
    70. broad / wide
    71. by / until
    72. can / could / able to
    73. capital / capitol
    74. carpet / mat / rug
    75. ceiling / roof
    76. chance / possibility / opportunity
    77. change / switch
    78. chauffeur / driver
    79. city / downtown / town
    80. classic / classical
    81. clever / intelligent / smart
    82. close / shut
    83. close to / near / next to
    84. cloth / clothes / clothing
    85. collect / gather
    86. come back / go back / get back
    87. compliment / complement
    88. concern / concerned / concerning
    89. confident / confidant / confidence
    90. continually / continuously
    91. convince / persuade
    92. could / should / would
    93. council / counsel
    94. critic / critical / criticism / critique
    95. cure / treat / heal / recover
    96. custom / habit
    97. deadly / fatal / lethal
    98. decent / descent / dissent
    99. decline / deny / refuse / reject
    100. defect / fault / flaw
    101. definitely / definitively
    102. delay / late / postpone
    103. despite / in spite of
    104. die / died / dead
    105. difficult / hard
    106. dilemma / quandary
    107. dinner / supper / meal / snack
    108. dirt / earth / soil
    109. dirty / messy
    110. disability / handicap / impairment
    111. discover / find out / notice / realize
    112. discreet / discrete
    113. disease / illness
    114. disinterested / uninterested
    115. distinct / distinctive
    116. do / make
    117. dress / dressed / wear
    118. during / while / meanwhile / meantime
    119. e.g. / i.e.
    120. early / soon
    121. earn / gain / win
    122. economic / economical
    123. effective / efficient
    124. either / neither
    125. electric / electrical / electronic
    126. empathy / sympathy
    127. employees / staff
    128. end / finish
    129. enough / too
    130. enquire / inquire
    131. especially / specially
    132. every day / everyday
    133. ex- / former / previous
    134. explore / exploit
    135. extend / expand
    136. famous / infamous
    137. farther / further
    138. fee / fare / tax
    139. female / feminine / woman
    140. few / little / less / fewer
    141. fit / match / suit
    142. floor / ground
    143. for / since
    144. forest / jungle / wood / woods
    145. fun / funny
    146. girl / lady / woman
    147. good / well
    148. good evening / good night
    149. gratuity / tip
    150. guarantee / warranty
    151. gut / guts
    152. hard / hardly
    153. have / have got
    154. have to / must / need to
    155. haven't / don't have
    156. hear / listen
    157. hijack / kidnap
    158. historic / historical
    159. holiday / vacation
    160. hope / wish
    161. hopefully / thankfully
    162. hostel / hotel / motel
    163. house / home
    164. how about...? / what about...?
    165. human / humankind / human being / man / mankind
    166. hundred / hundreds
    167. I / my / me / mine / myself
    168. I = subject
    169. if / whether
    170. If I was... / If I were...
    171. ignore / neglect
    172. ill / sick
    173. impending / pending
    174. imply / infer
    175. in / into / inside / within
    176. in / on / at
    177. incite / insight
    178. income / salary / wage
    179. Indian / indigenous / Native American
    180. inhabit / live / reside
    181. intend / tend
    182. interested / interesting
    183. interfere / intervene
    184. its / it's
    185. job / work / career
    186. just / only
    187. kinds / types / sorts
    188. know / meet
    189. last / latest
    190. last / past
    191. late / lately
    192. lay / lie
    193. like / as
    194. little / small
    195. look / see / watch
    196. lose / loose
    197. lose / miss
    198. made of / made from
    199. marriage / married / wedding
    200. may / might
    201. moral / morale
    202. Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Miss
    203. music / song
    204. nausea / nauseous / queasy
    205. north / northern
    206. notable / noticeable
    207. ocean / sea / lake / pond
    208. oppress / suppress / repress
    209. overtake / take over
    210. pass away / pass out
    211. pass the time / spend time
    212. peak / pique
    213. persons / peoples
    214. poison / venom
    215. politics / policy
    216. poor / pore / pour
    217. pray / prey
    218. principal / principle
    219. problem / trouble
    220. quiet / silent
    221. raise / rise / arise
    222. regard / regards / regardless
    223. regretful / regrettable
    224. relation / relationship
    225. remember / remind / reminder
    226. replace / substitute
    227. resolve / solve
    228. review / revise
    229. rob / thief / steal
    230. safety / security
    231. sale / sell
    232. say / tell / speak
    233. scream / shout
    234. sensible / sensitive
    235. shade / shadow
    236. so / such
    237. so / very / a lot
    238. some time / sometime / sometimes
    239. stuff / things
    240. such as / as such
    241. suppose / supposed to
    242. then / than
    243. think about / think of
    244. tide / waves
    245. till / until
    246. to / for
    247. too / very
    248. travel / trip / journey
    249. United
    250. wake / awake / sleep / asleep
    251. wander / wonder
    252. wary / weary
    253. what / which
    254. which / that
    255. who / whom
    256. will / would
    257. worse / worst
    258. year-old / years old
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  • World Architecture

    Pisa CathedralThe Campanile Leaning Tower

    Pisa Italy
    The city of Pisa stands on the River Arno in the Tuscan region of northern Italy. Its Piazza dei Miracoli is graced by the most beautiful group of Romanesque buildings in the country: the white marble basilican cathedral (begun 1063) the circular, domed baptistery (begun 1153) and the highly original bell tower (campanile), situated between the apse and the southeastern end of the cathedrals transept and now famous as the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Quite apart from its innovative cylindrical form, the location is remarkable, because bell towers usually stood near the west front of churches. Of course, the tower was designed to be vertical, but it started to lean very early in its construction. Since 1183 only a decade after it was started repeated and inventive attempts have been made to correct the incline. They continued for 800 years, until the very end of the twentieth century, when modern technology seemed to halt the incremental incline by then it had reached 10 percent and save the life of the tower. Taken together, those remedial actions represent a considerable architectural and engineering feat.The authorship of the tower remains uncertain. Tradition identifies Bonanno Pisano as the architect, but later scholars name Diotisalvi, Biduino, or Guidolotto. Other sources suggest the German Guglielmo of Innsbruck. The Pisa campanile, essentially a hollow cylinder of just over 50 feet (15.5 meters) outside diameter at the base, is 180 feet (55 meters) high. The structure consists of an external wall faced with gray and white San Giuliano limestone ashlar between it and an inner wall of dressed limestone, 293 steps wind to the top. The continuous facade is divided into six by elegant arcades and crowned (of course) by a cylindrical belfry, a little smaller in diameter than the tower. Throughout, the wall surfaces are inlaid with patterned, colored marble in the Tuscan Romanesque manner, reducing the large building to an appreciable human scale and creating a harmonious unity with the cathedral and the baptistery. There are earlier cylindrical bell towers elsewhere in Tuscany and Umbria, and even in Ravenna, but Pisan historians claim that the tower of Pisa is unique and locally inspired. Building work commenced on 9 August 1173 under the auspices of the Opera Campanilis Petrarum Sancte Marie (Stonework of St. Marys Bell Tower). The foundations were set only 10 feet (3.36 meters) deep, on a bed of dry stones. There is no question that poor foundation soil clay and sand strata interlayered with pockets of underground water could not support the highly concentrated loads imposed by the tower this, together with differential sinking of the soils, was the major contributor to the failure of the tower. The problem first appeared within about ten years, probably when the fourth arcade was reached. The building had sunk by more than 1 foot (30 centimeters), causing a lean of about 2 inches (5 centimeters). It was not unique in that: similar problems would be experienced in Holland, for similar reasons, Church towers still standing at Zierikzee and Leeuwarden have substantial leans both were abandoned, and the architect of the latter committed suicide. It seems that the Italian builders were more resolute than their Dutch counterparts, and after some delay, work on the tower of Pisa resumed, probably in the first decades of the thirteenth century. Remedial action was taken in two stages as attempts were made to reduce the lean. It is not known how high the building was when in the early 1270s Giovanni di Simone began to correct the inclination by raising one side of the galleries. By 1284, the six gallery levels were completed: then 156 feet (48 meters) high, the tower inclined about 3 feet (90 centimeters) from the vertical. The work was again suspended but the main part of the building was finished by 1319. The belfry, designed by Tommaso Pisano, was in place by 1350. Major works undertaken in 1838 to save the tower of Pisa changed the proportion of groundwater and resulted in accelerating the inclination it was only after some time that it settled to become about a millimeter a year. For over a century, eccentric suggestions were made to correct the problem, including a proposal to landscape the surrounding area to slope so that the tower would appear to be vertical. Moved to action by the 1989 collapse of the campanile of Pavia Cathedral, the Consorzio Progetto Torre di Pisa (Tower of Pisa Project Consortium) commissioned engineers to stabilize the Leaning Tower, then inclining more than 15 feet (4.6 meters) from true. It was closed to the public in 1990, and rescue work began. After some unsuccessful experiments, the three-part final solution was reached in July 1998. The tower was restrained by steel cables while 990 tons (900 tonnes) of lead were stacked against its base away from the direction of lean. Then excess water and mud were pumped from under the tower, allowing it to settle and in effect correct itself. As the tower straightened, the lead counterweights were regularly reduced. The project, with an overall cost of 54 billion lire (U.S.$27 million), was completed by the end of 2000. The result was that the lean was corrected by about 1 foot (30 centimeters), bringing the tower of Pisa to the condition it was in about three centuries earlier.


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