➲ A gerund
, the second type of verbal, ends in -ing and functions as a
noun. A gerund’s uses are many—subject, direct object, subject comple-
(predicate nominative), appositive, and object of the preposition.
If a gerund or the entire gerund phrase is removed from the sentence,
the remaining words will not form a complete, logical sentence.
The underlined word in each sentence is a gerund. Its use is within the
parentheses that follow the sentence.
is fun for Kate and Moe. (subject)
Marcia loves sewing
. (direct object)
A fun time for Rachel is reading
. (predicate nominative)
His passion, traveling
, inspired him in many ways. (appositive)
Geraldine has a love for traveling
. (object of
➲ A gerund phrase includes the gerund, its modifiers, and the words
that complete the idea begun by the gerund.
In each sentence, the gerund is italicized, and the gerund phrase is
Shopping for new dresses excites Terry Anne. (subject)
The orchestra members enjoy rehearsing for long periods of time.
Tommy’s passion is running long distances. (predicate nominative)
Joanna’s love, running, kept her very fit. (appositive)
Can you pass the test by studying very hard this month? (object of the
Note: Remember that the same phrase can have several uses.
The man signaling to you is my grandfather. (participial phrase)
Signaling to you was not difficult. (gerund phrase)
The player passing the soccer ball is James. (participial phrase)
Passing the soccer ball was hard for that man. (gerund phrase)
The Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog is a large breed of livestock guardian dog that originated in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania.
The Mioritic stands about 65?85 centimetres (26?33 in) tall at the withers and weighs 50?65 kilograms (110?143 lb). This massive dog is covered in thick fluffy hair. It may be white, with or without pale grey or cream patches, or cream or pale grey all over. The dog should have a vigorous appearance. Sexual dimorphism is evident in this breed, with males being significantly larger than females.