Misplaced and dangling modifiers

Words, phrases, and clauses that describe or modify nouns and pronouns
need to be properly placed within the sentence. This placement should
clearly indicate which word is being described.

A misplaced modifier is a word or group of words intended to describe a
noun or pronoun, but is placed incorrectly within the sentence.
Speaking to the state officials, the microphone held the reporter.
(In this sentence, the underlined modifier, Speaking to the state officials,
a participial phrase, is misplaced. The reporter, not the microphone,
was speaking to the state officials. Thus, the sentence could read, ‘‘The
reporter speaking to the state officials held the microphone.’’)
Other misplaced modifier examples include these. See if you can correct
each one.

In the microwave, the man cooked the popcorn.
Unhappy, the match was forfeited by the tennis player.
A dangling modifier is a word or group of words intended to describe a
noun or pronoun, but, according to the sentence’s wording, has nothing to

To get to the airport, the tram needs to be taken.
(In this sentence, the underlined modifier, To get to the airport, describes
nothing. The corrected version should read, ‘‘To get to the airport,
you need to take the tram.’’ Now the modifier has someone to

Other dangling modifier examples include these. See if you can correct
each one.

To solve this challenging puzzling, patience is needed.
Walking along the Thames River, the flowers looked beautiful.

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    Punjab, India
    When India won independence from the British in 1947, Pakistan and India were partitioned. The Punjab was divided and its capital, Lahore, was lost to Pakistan. Soon, East Punjabs population was quickly doubled by the flood of refugees from Pakistan. In March 1948 the provincial government, in consultation with the Indian central government and the enthusiastic support of Prime Minister Pandit Nehru, approved a new 45-square-mile 114-square-kilometer capital site on a sloping plain near the Shivalik foothills. Designed by an international team under the leadership of Le Corbusierit was his only realized urban planning schemethe new city introduced India to a modern architectural and urbanistic idiom. Named for one of the two dozen existing villages in the area, Chandigarh, about 150 miles 240 kilometers north of New Delhi, has been calledone of the most significant urban planning experiments of the twentieth century and asymbol of planned urbanism. The Punjab government, on the crest of a wave of nationalism, probably would have preferred to commission Indian professionals, but none was suitably qualified. In December 1949 it approached the New York architect-planner Albert Mayer, who was then engaged on master plans for Greater Bombay and Kanpur. He accepted the Chandigarh brief: a master plan for a city of 500,000, detailed designs for selected buildings, and planning controls for adjacent areas. He assembled an expert consultancy team and involved Matthew Nowicki as codesigner. Their fan-shaped plan sat between two seasonal riverbeds that crossed the site. The seat of the state government was at its head, and the city center was located at its heart. Two linear parklands ran from the northeast head of the plan to its southwest tip, and a curving road network definedsuperblock neighborhood units like those of Bras

    Chourishi Systems