Commas Part Two
Active and passive voices
agreement between indefinite pronouns and their antecedents
agreement involving prepositional phrases
Commas Part Five
Commas Part Four
Commas Part One
Commas Part Three
Commas Part Two
complete and simple predicates
complete and simple subjects
compound complex sentences
compound prepositions and the preposition adverb question
compound subject and compound predicate
compound subjects part one
Confusing usage words part eight
Confusing usage words part five
Confusing usage words part four
Confusing usage words part one
Confusing usage words part seven
Confusing usage words part six
Confusing usage words part three
Confusing usage words part three 2
Confusing usage words part two
First Capitalization List
Indefinite pronouns and the possessive case
Irregular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
irregular verbs part one
irregular verbs part two
Misplaced and dangling modifiers
More Apostrophe Situations
More subject verb agreement situations
Parentheses Ellipsis Marks and Dashes
Periods Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
pronouns and their antecedents
Quotation Marks Part One
Quotation Marks Part Two
reflexive demonstrative and interrogative pronouns
Regular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
regular verb tenses
Second Capitalization List
sentences fragments and run on sentences
singular and plural nouns and pronouns
Sound a like words Part Four
Sound a like words Part Three
Sound a like words Part Two
Sound alike words part one
subject and verb agreement
subject complements predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
subject verb agreement situations
the adjective clause
the adjective phrase
the adverb clause
the adverb phrase
The coordinating conjunction
the correlative conjunction
the direct object
the gerund and gerund phrase
the indirect object
the infinitive and infinitive phrase
The nominative case
the noun adjective pronoun question
the noun clause
the object of the preposition
the participle and participial phrase
The possessive case
The possessive case 2
The possessive case and pronouns
the prepositional phrase
the subordinating conjunction
The verb be
the verb phrase
Transitive and intransitive verbs
types of nouns
types of sentences by purpose
Using Capital Letters
what good writers do
Here are some useful rules when you are working with commas.
Use a comma after Yes and No when these words start a sentence.
Yes, we have the show’s starting time.
No, there are no bananas in that store.
Use a comma both after consecutive introductory prepositional phrases
and after a long introductory prepositional phrase.
In the middle of New York City, the traffic is very heavy during
In the World Series’ final game that was played in 1960, the Pirates hitter
whacked a home run over the left field wall.
Note: A comma can be placed after a short introductory prepositional
phrase if the sentence’s meaning and flow are improved by the comma.
Read the sentence aloud to see if a comma is justified.
In the first instance, the dog was in the back of the van.
Without Greg’s assistance, Ricardo would have spent many hours on
Use a comma after an introductory participle or participial phrase.
Intrigued, the young child looked into the fishbowl.
Motivated by their drama coach’s remarks, the cast members worked
even harder than before.
Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.
Before we started our vacation, we had the mechanic check out our car.
Note: In most instances (unless the sentence’s meaning is unclear),
an adverb clause that follows an independent clause is not preceded
by a comma.
I cannot recall a single instance when Jimmy was inconsiderate.
Class 9 -Punctuation
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Daily Health Tips
Vitamin A the Forgotten Vitamin
The vitamin of the day is vitamin A. Known as anti-ophthalmic, vitamin A is essential for growth and vitality. It builds up resistance to respiratory and other infections and works mainly on the eyes, lungs, stomach and intestines. It prevents eye diseases and plays a vital role in nourishing the skin and hair. It helps to prevent premature ageing and senility, increases life expectancy and extends youthfulness. The main sources of this vitamin are fish liver oil, liver, whole milk, curds, pure ghee, butter, cheese, cream and egg yolk, green leafy and certain yellow root vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, turnip, beets, carrot, cabbage and tomato and ripe fruits such as prunes, mangoes, papayas, apricots, peaches, almonds and other dry fruits. A prolonged deficiency of vitamin A may result in inflammation of the eyes, poor vision frequent colds, night blindness and increased susceptibility to infections, lack of appetite and vigour, defective teeth and gums and skin disorders. The recommended daily allowance of vitamin A is 5,000 international units for adults and 2,600 to 4,000 international units for children. When taken in large therapeutic doses, which are usually 25,000 to 50,000 units a day, it is highly beneficial in the treatment of head and chest colds, sinus trouble, influenza and other infectious diseases. It is also valuable in curing night blindness and other eye diseases as well as many stubborn skin disorders. This vitamin can be given upto 1,00,000 units a day for a limited period of four weeks under doctor's supervision. In a recent year-long study, huge doses of vitamin A given twice a year reduced death by about 30 per cent among Indonesian children. This has raised the hope in the fight against a significant cause of childhood mortality in developing countries.