Quotation Marks Part One

When working with quotation marks (‘‘ ’’), follow these rules. This is the first
of three pages about quotation marks.

  • Use quotation marks before and directly after a speaker’s exact words.
    The lifeguard told the swimmers, ‘‘Please move down between the green flags.’’

    Note: Use a comma to separate the speaker’s exact words from the sentence’s
    other parts.

    ‘‘Please move down between the green flags,’’ the lifeguard told the

    Note: You do not have to use quotation marks around an indirect quotation.
    The lifeguard told the beachgoers to move between the green flags if
    they wanted to go into the water.

    Note: A direct quotation usually begins with a capital letter. If the quotation
    is not in its entirety, it often begins with a lowercase letter.

    Mikki believes that ‘‘honesty is its own reward.’’

  • If a direct quotation that is a full sentence is broken up into two parts
    because the speaker is identified, the second part begins with a
    lowercase letter.

    ‘‘Since the flowers are starting to bloom,’’ said Chris, ‘‘we should not
    step into the garden.’’

    Note: If the second part of a direct quotation is a complete sentence,
    start that part with a capital letter. Insert a period after the unquoted

    ‘‘This is beautiful!’’ responded Mrs. Alsager. ‘‘Keep it going!’’
    Note: If a person’s exact words are more than a single sentence and are
    not divided, use only a single set of quotation marks.

    ‘‘Waves gently lapped the shore. Children played in the sand,’’ the
    man reported.

  • --- >>>
  • the interjection
  • Active and passive voices
  • agreement between indefinite pronouns and their antecedents
  • agreement involving prepositional phrases
  • Commas Part Five
  • Commas Part Four
  • Commas Part One
  • Commas Part Three
  • Commas Part Two
  • complete and simple predicates
  • complete and simple subjects
  • complex sentences
  • compound complex sentences
  • compound prepositions and the preposition adverb question
  • compound subject and compound predicate
  • compound subjects part two
  • compound subjects part one
  • Confusing usage words part eight
  • Confusing usage words part five
  • Confusing usage words part four
  • Confusing usage words part one
  • Confusing usage words part seven
  • Confusing usage words part six
  • Confusing usage words part three
  • Confusing usage words part three 2
  • Confusing usage words part two
  • First Capitalization List
  • indefinite pronouns
  • Indefinite pronouns and the possessive case
  • introducing clauses
  • introducing phrases
  • Irregular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
  • irregular verbs part one
  • irregular verbs part two
  • Italics Hyphens and Brackets
  • Misplaced and dangling modifiers
  • More Apostrophe Situations
  • More subject verb agreement situations
  • Parentheses Ellipsis Marks and Dashes
  • Periods Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
  • personal pronouns
  • pronouns and their antecedents
  • Quotation Marks Part Three
  • Quotation Marks Part One
  • Quotation Marks Part Two
  • reflexive demonstrative and interrogative pronouns
  • Regular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
  • regular verb tenses
  • Second Capitalization List
  • sentences fragments and run on sentences
  • singular and plural nouns and pronouns
  • Sound a like words Part Four
  • Sound a like words Part Three
  • Sound a like words Part Two
  • Sound alike words part one
  • subject and verb agreement
  • subject complements predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
  • subject verb agreement situations
  • the adjective
  • the adjective clause
  • the adjective phrase
  • the adverb
  • the adverb clause
  • the adverb phrase
  • The Apostrophe
  • the appositive
  • The Colon
  • The coordinating conjunction
  • the correlative conjunction
  • the direct object
  • the gerund and gerund phrase
  • the indirect object
  • the infinitive and infinitive phrase
  • The nominative case
  • the noun
  • the noun adjective pronoun question
  • the noun clause
  • the object of the preposition
  • the participle and participial phrase
  • The possessive case
  • The possessive case 2
  • The possessive case and pronouns
  • the preposition
  • the prepositional phrase
  • the pronoun
  • The Semicolon
  • the subordinating conjunction
  • the verb
  • The verb be
  • the verb phrase
  • Transitive and intransitive verbs
  • types of nouns
  • types of sentences by purpose
  • Using Capital Letters
  • what good writers do
  • Romantic Valentines Day Ideas
  • Weird Houses
  • Things Women Say That Men Misunderstand
  • Benefits of Turnips
  • Agra City
  • Boss Day

  • Simple Science

    Why the Water Supply is not uniform in All Parts of the City

    The Water Problem of a Large City:
    In the preceding Section, we saw that the flow from a faucet depends upon the height of the reserve water above the tap. Houses on a level with the main supply pipes have a strong flow because the water is under the pressure of a column A; houses situated on elevation B have less flow, because the water is under the pressure of a shorter column B; and houses at a considerable elevation C have a less rapid flow corresponding to the diminished depth (C).

    Not only does the flow vary with the elevation of the house, but it varies with the location of the faucet within the house. Unless the reservoir is very high, or the pumps very powerful, the flow on the upper floors is noticeably less than that in the cellar, and in the upper stories of some high building the flow is scarcely more than a feeble trickle.

    When the respective flows at A, B, and C are measured, they are found to be far lower than the pressures which columns of water of the heights A, B, and C have been shown by actual demonstration to exert. This is because water, in flowing from place to place, expends force in overcoming the friction of the pipes and the resistance of the air. The greater the distance traversed by the water in its journey from reservoir to faucet, the greater the waste force and the less the final flow.

    In practice, large mains lead from the reservoir to the city, smaller mains convey the water to the various sections of the city, and service pipes lead to the individual house taps. During this long journey, considerable force is expended against friction, and hence the flow at a distance from the reservoir falls to but a fraction of its original strength. For this reason, buildings situated near the main supply have a much stronger flow than those on the same level but remote from the supply. Artificial reservoirs are usually constructed on the near outskirts of a town in order that the frictional force lost in transmission may be reduced to a minimum.

    In the case of a natural reservoir, such as an elevated lake or stream, the distance cannot be planned or controlled. New York, for example, will secure an abundance of pure water from the Catskill Mountains, but it will lose force in transmission. Los Angeles is undertaking one of the greatest municipal projects of the day. Huge aqueducts are being built which will convey pure mountain water a distance of 250 miles, and in quantities sufficient to supply two million people. According to calculations, the force of the water will be so great that pumps will not be needed.

    FIG. - Water pressure varies in different parts of a water system.

    FIG. - The more distant the fountain, the weaker the flow.

    Chourishi Systems