While assertive in his Indianness, Nehru never exuded the Hindu aura and atmosphere clinging to Gandhis personality. Because of his modern political and economic outlook, he was able to attract the younger intelligentsia of India to Gandhis movement of nonviolent resistance against the British and later to rally them around him after independence had been gained. Nehrus Western upbringing and his visits to Europe before independence had acclimatized him to Western ways of thinking. Throughout his 17 years in office, he held up democratic socialism as the guiding star. With the help of the overwhelming majority that the Congress Party maintained in Parliament during his term of office, he advanced toward that goal. The four pillars of his domestic policies were democracy, socialism, unity, and secularism. He succeeded to a large extent in maintaining the edifice supported by these four pillars during his lifetime.Nehrus only child, Indira Gandhi, served as Indias prime minister from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 to 1984. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi, was prime minister from 1984 to 1989.