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1.
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  • Economy of India

    Employment

    Agricultural and allied sectors accounted for about 52.1 Percent of the total workforce in 2009 10. While agriculture employment has fallen over time in percentage of labor employed, services which includes construction and infrastructure have seen a steady growth accounting for 20.3 Percent of employment in 2012 13. Of the total workforce, 7 Percent is in the organised sector, two thirds of which are in the government controlled public sector. About 51.2 Percent of the labor in India is self employed. According to 2005 06 survey, there is a gender gap in employment and salaries. In rural areas, both men and women are primarily self employed, mostly in agriculture. In urban areas, salaried work was the largest source of employment for both men and women in 2006.

    Unemployment in India is characterised by chronic disguised unemployment. Government schemes that target eradication of both poverty and unemployment which in recent decades has sent millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of livelihoods attempt to solve the problem, by providing financial assistance for setting up businesses, skill honing, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc. The decline in organised employment due to the decreased role of the public sector after liberalisation has further underlined the need for focusing on better education and has also put political pressure on further reforms.India s labour regulations are heavy even by developing country standards and analysts have urged the government to abolish or modify them in order to make the environment more conducive for employment generation. The 11th five year plan has also identified the need for a congenial environment to be created for employment generation, by reducing the number of permissions and other bureaucratic clearances required.Further, inequalities and inadequacies in the education system have been identified as an obstacle preventing the benefits of increased employment opportunities from reaching all sectors of society.

    Child labour in India is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The Indian government has implemented, since the 1990s, a variety of programs to eliminate child labor. These have included setting up schools, launching free school lunch program, setting up special investigation cells and others.Desai et al. state that recent studies on child labour in India have found some pockets of industries in which children are employed, but overall, relatively few Indian children are employed. Child labour below the age of 10 is now rare. In the 10 14 group, the latest surveys find only 2 Percent of children working for wage, while another 9 Percent work within their home or rural farms assisting their parents in times of high work demand such as sowing and harvesting of crops.

    India has the second largest diaspora around the world, an estimated 25 million people, many of whom work overseas and remit funds back to their families. The Middle East region is the largest source of employment of expat Indians. The crude oil production and infrastructure industry of Saudi Arabia employs over 2 million expat Indians. Cities such as Dubai and Abu Dhabi in United Arab Emirates alone have employed another 2 million Indian construction workers during its construction boom in recent decades.In 2009 10, remittances from Indian migrants overseas stood at INR2500 billion US$39 billion , the highest in the world, but their share in FDI remained low at around 1 Percent.


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