How Electricity is obtained on a Large Scale
When a magnet is at rest within a closed coil of wire, as in Section 319, current does not flow through the wire. But if a piece of iron is brought near the magnet, current is induced and flows through the wire; if the iron is withdrawn, current is again induced in the wire but flows in the opposite direction. As iron approaches and recedes from the magnet, current is induced in the wire surrounding the magnet. This is in brief the principle of the telephone. When one talks into a receiver, L
, the voice throws into vibration a sensitive iron plate standing before an electromagnet. The back and forth motion of the iron plate induces current in the electromagnet c
. The current thus induced makes itself evident at the opposite end of the line M
, where by its magnetic attraction, it throws a second iron plate into vibrations. The vibrations of the second plate are similar to those produced in the first plate by the voice. The vibrations of the far plate thus reproduce the sounds uttered at the opposite end.
FIG. - Diagram of a simple telephone circuit.