idioms

ugly duckling
an ugly or plain child who grows up to be attractive
The girl was an ugly duckling when she was a child but now she is very beautiful.
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  • unaccustomed to (someone or something)
  • under (close) scrutiny
  • under a cloud
  • under a cloud (of suspicion)
  • under arrest
  • under certain circumstances
  • under certain conditions
  • under construction
  • under control
  • under cover
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  • out of breath
  • yield the right-of-way
  • up one`s alley
  • so to speak
  • go whole hog
  • double-talk
  • when the time is ripe
  • lay the blame on (someone or something)
  • keep (someone or something) in check
  • by heart


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  • Forms
    Affirmative
    Question
    Negative
    I have been working you have been working, etc
    have I been working? have you been working?etc
    I have not been working, etc
  • Meaning
    We use the present perfect progressive to talk about actions, states and situations which started in the past and still continue, or which have just stopped.
    Have you been waiting long?
  • since and for
    We often use the present perfect progressive with since or for, to say how long something has been going on.
      It's been raining non-stop since Monday.
      It's been raining non-stop for three days.
      We've been living here since July.
      We've been living here for two months.
    We use since when we mention the beginning of the period (for example Monday, July).
    We use for when we mention the length of the period (for example three days; two months).
    For the differences between since, for, from and ago, .
  • Present perfect simple and progressive
    We can use both the present perfect simple and the present perfect progressive to talk about actions and situations which started in the past and which still continue.
    We prefer the present perfect progressive for more temporary actions and situations; when we talk about more permanent (long-lasting) situations, we prefer the present perfect simple. Compare:
      That man's been standing on the corner all day.
      For 900 years, the castle has stood on the hill above the village.
      I haven't been working very well recently.
      He hasn't worked for years.
      I've been living in Sally's flat for the last month.
      r
      PAST1
      NOW
      1-1-
      My parents have lived in Bristol all their lives.
      Some verbs are not used in progressive forms . I've only known her for two days.
      (NOT I've only been knowing her . . .)
      I've had a cold since Monday. (NOT -
  • Present perfect progressive and present
    To say how long something has been going on, we can use the present perfect progressive, but not the present.
      I've been working since six this morning. (NOT I am working . . .)
      She's been learning English for six years.
      (NOT She learns English for . . .)
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