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Test # 44


1.
A project manager from the quality control area is trying to categorize the number of mistakes that are made in the area that paints the right front fender of the Mercedes 560 SL. She list all the possible defects on a sheet of paper and asks the inspector to make a mark each time one of the listed defects is found. This is an example of using which of the following quality tools?

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Idiom of the Day

crocodile tears
a show of sorrow that is not real
The man said that he was very sorry but his tears were only crocodile tears.

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  • World Architecture

    Archigram

    The Archigram group was established in 1961 by a few young British architectsunited by common interests and antipathies. Its founders were Peter Cook, Michael Webb, and David Greene, who were soon joined by Dennis Crompton, Ron Herron, and Warren Chalk. Archigrams international impactits architectural feat, so to speakwas significant. Other architects would give form to its notions. The Centre Pompidou, Paris, by Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, and Arata Isozakis buildings at the 1970 Osaka Worlds Fair are redolent of the fantastic schemes drawn, but never built, by Archigram. The Austrian architect Hans Hollein, too, admits his debt to them after 1964. It is in the realm of ideas about living in an advanced industrial civilization that they offered most. All the founders had been students at the Architecture Association school in London, where they had learned, in the face of a then-reactionary architectural profession, to apply democratic principles to the art. The members who came later assimilated those ideas and blended them with other influences, notably the futuristic urban visions of Friedrich Kiesler and Bruno Taut and the technological notions of Richard Buckminster Fuller, whom they heroized. They also formed a symbiotic intellectual association with the exactly contemporary Japanese Metabolist group, in which Isozaki was preeminent. The Japanese applauded their efforts todismantle the apparatus of Modern Architecture. Like the Dutch De Stijl group around 1920, Archigrams cooperation was mainly through a polemical journal and like the Hollanders, it drew its name from the title of the journal. Archigram derived fromarchitecture andtelegram oraerogram was published almost annually between 1961 and 1974. Archigram, more like a polemical broadsheet than a journal, directed an attack on the smugness of modernist architectural conservatism, reinforced by what can best be called Britishness. The powerful publication ran to ten annual issues, preaching an urgent message about architecture that has been described asesthetic technocratic idealism. Possibly the most significant architectural publication of the decade, itspop format, including beautifully drawn comic strips, declared the groupsoptimism and possibilities of technology and the counterculture of the pop generation. The 1964 issue, after a controversialLiving City exhibition at Londons Institute of Contemporary Arts, attracted the critic Reyner Banham, who became the groups champion. There followed a succession of perhaps outlandish architectural proposals. Archigrams direction was urban, technological, autocraticand some have said inhumane. The members believed that technology was the hope of the world, so traditional means of building houses and cities must be superseded. Their favorite words were change, adaptability, flexibility, metamorphosis, impermanence, and ephemerality. Accordingly, they designed a living environment that incorporated all kinds of gadgetry. They proposed an inflatable bodysuit containing food, radio, and television, and thesuitaloon, a house carried on the back. These eccentric ideas extended from the individual to the communal: Chalks Capsule Homes 1964 were projected alongside Cooks Plug-in City 1964?1966, in which self- contained living units could be temporarily fitted into towering structural frames, and Herrons nomadic Walking City in which skyscrapers could move on giant telescoping legs. The group published its Instant City in 1968. It has been suggested that in the 1960s Archigram was to modern architecture what the Beatles were to modern music. But in the early 1970s they more or less dispersed, Greene and Herron for a while becoming teachers in the United States. Crompton, Cook, and Herron formed Archigram Architects 1970?1974. Herron and Cook then established independent practices in various partnerships. Crompton maintained links with the Architectural Association, and Greene turned to writing poetry and practicing architecture. Webb moved permanently to the United States and after 1975 taught at Cornell and Columbia Universities in New York. Chalk continued writing and teaching in the United States and England, mostly at the Architectural Association, until he died in 1987.


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