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Prepositions - Above

  • Above can mean in or at a higher place.

    Pattern 1: be + above + noun A dark cloud was above the house.

    Pattern 2: verb + noun + above + noun Let's hang the picture above the sofa.
    Verbs commonly used before above:
    arrange, carry, hang, hold, keep, place, put, set
  • Above can mean at a higher level, value, or rank.
    Her blood pressure is above normal.
    The children in her class are all above average.
    In the navy, a captain is above a commander.
  • Above (adverb) can indicate something written earlier in a book, article, or other document.
    Please see the instructions above.
  • Above (adjective) describes something written earlier.
    Please follow the above instructions.
  • Above indicates that a person is too good to commit the stated negative action.

    Pattern 1: be + above + noun The policeman is above cruelty.
    Nouns often used after above:
    cruelty, dishonesty, meanness, perjury, theft, murder, treason

    Pattern 2: be + above + verb in gerund form
    He may be poor, but he is above stealing.
    Gerunds often used with this meaning:
    breaking the law, cheating, gossiping, lying, robbing, snooping, stealing
  • Expressions
    up above (adverb)—in heaven
    Our dear grandmother is now in peace up above.
    above and beyond the call of duty—action that is more or greater than what is expected of a person
    My teacher's help after school was above and beyond the call of duty.
    above board—completely honest and open
    Our negotiations with the company were above board.
    above the law—exempt from restrictions of the law People in power sometimes believe they are above the law.
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  • Prepositions - About
  • Prepositions - Above
  • Prepositions - Across
  • Prepositions - After
  • Prepositions - Against
  • Prepositions - Ahead Of
  • Prepositions - Along
  • Prepositions - Among
  • Prepositions - Around
  • Prepositions - As
  • Prepositions - At
  • Prepositions - Back to/Back From
  • Prepositions - Before
  • Prepositions - Behind
  • Prepositions - Below
  • Prepositions - Beneath
  • Prepositions - Beside
  • Prepositions - Besides
  • Prepositions - Between
  • Prepositions - Beyond
  • Prepositions - But
  • Prepositions - By
  • Prepositions - Close To
  • Prepositions - Despite/In Spite Of
  • Prepositions - Down
  • Prepositions - During
  • Prepositions - Except
  • Prepositions - Far From
  • Prepositions - For
  • Prepositions - From
  • Prepositions - In
  • Prepositions - In Back Of
  • Prepositions - In Front Of
  • Prepositions - Inside
  • Prepositions - Instead Of
  • Prepositions - Into
  • Prepositions - Like
  • Prepositions - Near
  • Prepositions - Next To
  • Prepositions - Of
  • Prepositions - Off
  • Prepositions - On
  • Prepositions - On Top Of
  • Prepositions - Onto
  • Prepositions - Opposite
  • Prepositions - Out
  • Prepositions - Outside
  • Prepositions - Over
  • Prepositions - Past
  • Prepositions - Through
  • Prepositions - Throughout
  • Prepositions - To
  • Prepositions - Toward
  • Prepositions - Towards
  • Prepositions - Under
  • Prepositions - Underneath
  • Prepositions - Until
  • Prepositions - Up
  • Prepositions - With
  • Prepositions - Within
  • Prepositions - Without
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  • Precautions while using Shampoo

    Detergents

    The next most abundant ingredients in shampoos are the primary detergents. These materials, also known as surfactants, are the cleansing ingredients in shampoos. Surfactants are surface active ingredients, meaning they can interact with a surface. The chemical nature of a surfactant allows it to surround and trap oily materials from surfaces. One portion of the molecule is oil compatible (soluble) while the other is water soluble. When a shampoo is applied to hair or textiles, the oil soluble portion aligns with the oily materials while the water soluble portion aligns in the water layer. When a number of surfactant molecules line up like this, they form a structure known as a micelle. This micelle has oil trapped in the middle and can be washed away with water, thus giving the shampoo its cleansing power.


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