cExams.net
Test # 380
Enter eMail-id:

1.

Mind Game 380

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691

Word of the Day

  • Healthy Mouth
  • Ways to be a Daredevil on Your Vacation
  • Hanuman Chalisa
  • Dog Breeds
  • Tips to get ready for New Year
  • Common Household Items That Could Kill You

  • World Architecture

    Pantheon

    Rome Italy
    As its name suggests, the Pantheon in Rome was dedicated to many gods. Its seven interior niches housed statues of Apollo, Diana, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn, and the great dome also had religious significance since it symbolized the heavens. Even now, when stripped of much of its enrichment, the scale and simple geometry of the Pantheon awe the visitor. Moreover, its sophisticated engineering stirs imagination for its ancient engineers. Many of their modern counterparts are at a loss to understand how the structural system worked, much less how it has survived for two millennia. The great Florentine artist Michelangelo Buonarotti concluded that it was the result of angelic and not human design. The first Pantheon was built in 27 b.c. for Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus Caesar. Except for lower parts of the porch and foundation, it was irretrievably damaged by fire in a.d. 80, and reconstruction to a slightly different design was commissioned by the Emperor Hadrian. The present building dates from between 118 and 128, although some scholars believe that it was completed under Pius about twelve years later. Lucius Septimius Severus and Caracalla sponsored a restoration in 202. In 609 the building was presented to Pope Boniface IV by the Byzantine emperor Phocas, and it was dedicated as the Church of St. Mary of the Martyrs (now Santa Maria Rotonda) on 13 May.The great portico was originally approached across a colonnaded rectangular courtyard on the temples north side. Three rows of 46-foot-high (14-meter) columns support its gable roof, which rises to 80 feet (24 meters). The entablature carries a pediment that once was crowded with bronze relief sculptures of a battle between the Titans and the gods. The front row of eight columns and the second row of four are of Egyptian gray granite the third row, framing the door and its flanking apses, is of Egyptian red granite. All are crowned with Corinthian capitals carved in white Pentelic marble from Greece. The massive bronze entrance doors are 21 feet (6.3 meters) high. With their fanlights, they were originally gold plated. The interior of the Pantheon a single volume is a 143-foot-diameter (43.3-meter) cylinder upon which rests a hemispherical dome. The total inside height is the same as the diameter. A semicircular apse covered by a hemidome faces the door. Around the wall on each side are three 14-foot-deep (4.2-meter) recesses, alternately rectangular and semicircular in plan and screened from the central space by pairs of 35-foot-high (10.5-meter) marble Corinthian columns supporting entablatures and a deep cornice. The lower part of the wall once was faced with marble and porphyry, the upper with marble pilasters and paneled with antique yellow marble, serpentine, and pavonazetto. Above it all soars the magnificent coffered dome, the largest in the world until Brunelleschi built his masterpiece on Florence Cathedral thirteen centuries later. Five rows of twenty-eight square diminishing coffers, each recessed in four steps, rise to a central oculus a circular window open to the sky. Originally the coffers were decorated, perhaps with gold stars on a background of blue. Even when the doors are closed, light enters the vast space through the 19-foot-diameter (8.7-meter) oculus. As the sun moves, a spotlight slowly swings across the interior, illuminating and enriching the colored wall and floor surfaces. Externally the dome was covered with gilded bronze plates, but they were taken to Constantinople in 655 and replaced by lead. Indeed, much of the precious material of the Pantheon has been plundered the exterior surface of the wall was once veneered with colored marbles. Now the brickwork and the huge relieving arches of the second tier are exposed. A 14.75-foot-deep (4.5-meter) concrete foundation supports the Pantheons 20-foot-thick (6-meter) cylindrical brick-faced concrete wall, 104 feet (31.7 meters) high. Roman concrete consisted of lime, pozzolana and a few pieces of very coarse aggregate. Bricks of various shapes were used as lost formwork. The wall was made lighter as it rose by using lighter aggregate in the concrete every 4 feet (1.2 meters) the brick formwork was tied together with a through-course of brickwork. It was designed to bear a range of complex stresses and loads, and it seems that instead of working as a solid mass it behaves structurally like a series of massive piers acting as buttresses to resist the thrust imposed by the dome. Roman concrete domes normally were made of lightweight aggregates such as pumice to reduce their mass and constructed on timber centering supported from the ground. The thickness of the Pantheon dome reduces from nearly 20 feet (6 meters) at the base to about 5 feet (1.5 meters) at the edge of the oculus. The engineers probably knew that such a huge span of unreinforced concrete might not develop enough tensile strength therefore they used lighter aggregates near the apex and the oculus really a brick-reinforced compression ring to minimize lateral thrust. Thus, to halfway up the dome is built as a series of seven stepped rings of concrete with alternating layers of bricks and tufa probably, each was allowed to develop full strength before the next was placed. The top 30-foot (9.2-meter) section was made in the usual way: alternate layers of 9-inch (7.5-centimeter) pieces of tufa and volcanic slag bonded with mortar. Although the Pantheon did not employ a revolutionary structural system, it represents the high point in Roman concrete technology evolved from well-thought-through construction traditions.


    Chourishi Systems