The force acts on the charged particles themselves, hence charge has a tendency to spread itself as evenly as possible over a conducting surface. The magnitude of the electromagnetic force, whether attractive or repulsive, is given by Coulombs law, which relates the force to the product of the charges and has an inverse square relation to the distance between them.The electromagnetic force is very strong, second only in strength to the strong interaction, but unlike that force it operates over all distances.In comparison with the much weaker gravitational force, the electromagnetic force pushing two electrons apart is 1042 times that of the gravitational attraction pulling them together.
Study has shown that the origin of charge is from certain types of subatomic particles which have the property of electric charge. Electric charge gives rise to and interacts with the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The most familiar carriers of electrical charge are the electron and proton. Experiment has shown charge to be a conserved quantity, that is, the net charge within an isolated system will always remain constant regardless of any changes taking place within that system.within the system, charge may be transferred between bodies, either by direct contact, or by passing along a conducting material, such as a wire.2 5 The informal term static electricity refers to the net presence or imbalance of charge on a body, usually caused when dissimilar materials are rubbed together, transferring charge from one to the other.
The charge on electrons and protons is opposite in sign, hence an amount of charge may be expressed as being either negative or positive. By convention, the charge carried by electrons is deemed negative, and that by protons positive, a custom that originated with the work of Benjamin Franklin.The amount of charge is usually given the symbol Q and expressed in coulombs;each electron carries the same charge of approximately ?1.6022?10?19 coulomb. The proton has a charge that is equal and opposite, and thus +1.6022?10?19 coulomb. Charge is possessed not just by matter, but also by antimatter, each antiparticle bearing an equal and opposite charge to its corresponding particle.
Charge can be measured by a number of means, an early instrument being the gold leaf electroscope, which although still in use for classroom demonstrations, has been superseded by the electronic electrometer.